Reduction in infant mortality and an indicator of the development of societies

Mohamed Ibrahim Bassyouni
mobassyouni@yahoo.com

2022 / 9 / 6

An estimated 6.3 million children under the age of 15,´-or-one child, die every five seconds, with the majority of these deaths from preventable causes, according to new mortality estimates from UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the United Nations Population Division and the World Bank Group.
The vast majority (5.4 million) of these deaths occur in the first five years of life, and half of that number occur among newborns.
Most deaths in children under five years of age are due to preventable´-or-treatable causes, such as complications during childbirth, pneumonia, diarrhoea, Newborn sepsis and malaria. In contrast, injuries among children between 5 and 14 years of age have become a more common cause of death, especially from drowning and road accidents. There are differences between regions in the mortality of children in this age group, as the risk of death for children from the African region is 15 times higher than in Europe.
The results of investment in primary health care show a decrease in infant mortality, and therefore it was chosen as an indicator of the development of societies. It s a dummy allergy, but it emerged in all studies, and was unaffected by confounding factors. The infant mortality rate differs from the human life expectancy, as many confusing factors overlap in it.
Thus, the infant mortality rate has become an indicator of the growth and development of society due to its excessive sensitivity, as it is an acceptable social indicator for the health of the nation and the quality of life in it. And infant mortality has decreased in the world. With some exceptions, there are other factors working with government spending on health to reduce infant mortality. An example of this is Sweden, which has the lowest infant mortality rate in the world. Is the reason lies in the Swedish government s generosity in spending on health,´-or-that Swedish society is the decisive factor in terms of a civilized lifestyle and others, without affecting that spending on health.
The factors that affect infant mortality rates can be summarized in the individual’s social level, lifestyle, and some demographic variables such as the mother’s age, educational level, culture, family economic level, housing, smoking of the mother during pregnancy, internal´-or-external migration and others. Weight at birth is the most important factor affecting infant mortality. And the odds of infant mortality with a lower birth weight is very high.
The country is an important factor in infant mortality, and there are differences in the factors affecting infant mortality in less developed countries than in more developed countries. Among the factors in less developed countries are the fertility rate, the wide differences in per capita income, the abortion rate, the unemployment rate, as well as government spending on health.
Numerous studies have indicated that infant mortality is inversely affected by government spending on health, meaning that an increase in government spending reduces infant mortality. This result emerged from analyzing the two variables together only (government spending on health and infant mortality). As for adding some of the factors that were mentioned previously, the importance of government spending on health appears only in its impact on the deaths of newcomers. Perhaps the reason for this is the inclusion of many countries in the study, where each country has its own circumstances, as well as the time of obtaining information, as it may be different between countries´-or-the difference in definitions and many others.



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