Economic Blocs and Economic Organizations

Prof. Moustafa Mohamad El Abdallah Alkafry
moustafa.alkafri@gmail.com

2022 / 6 / 12

In the name of of Allah the Merciful
Introduction
Humanity lived mobile in the pre-agricultural stage, then entered the era of stability and agriculture, and this was a rebirth for it that required it to adapt to the methods of dividing social work, distributing production, trying to prevent human exploitation of fellow human beings, and so that money would not be a state among the rich. The industrial age is the information age. Perhaps ten thousand years ago man was nothing mentioned. He did not know how to produce his food, nor how to cover his body, then we saw how he learned agriculture, crafts, industry and harnessing energy to serve him during ten thousand years.
Economic activity is a river that crosses the world since the beginning of creation, passes through cities and villages, nourishes the population with its products and eternal energy, flows in the land of every people, and the field of every individual, overflowing with daily hours that do not cease, but sometimes it becomes (wealth) in a specific field. At another time, it turns into nothingness in another field. It passes through life, and pours into the land and history the products and values ​-;-​-;-that it has conferred on humanity through the work it has accomplished. Economic activity occupies an essential position in building human civilization and facing backwardness to subjugate and overcome it. It calls for defining economic culture in the light of our current situation, and according to our destiny. It identifies the essential elements needed to build a civilization.

Economic ideas represent the beginnings of solving the economic problem and people’s life problems. Economic activity includes four main elements for the continuation of human life: man, nature, capital and time. This means that the construction and development of human civilization is conditioned by these four elements. The conclusion of the research is that the issue of individual well-being and the development of society is linked to the idea of ​-;-​-;-guidance and management in the following aspects: -dir-ecting economic culture, -dir-ecting work, -dir-ecting capital, and -dir-ecting towards sustainable development. The idea of ​-;-​-;--dir-ection and management means: the strength of the foundation, the consistency of the course, the unity of the goal, and the avoidance of wasting effort, time and resources.

The world today is not moved by politics, nor by wars and conflicts, nor by projects of domination and acquisition, nor by the effects of power. Everything that moves in this world is done only according to economic strategies. The economy today, and tomorrow, is in control of all decisions in the world, and it is the absolute attraction that fraternizes between countries, so they form friendships and economic blocs, and it is the absolute attraction that sometimes alienates countries from each other, thus creating hostilities. Nothing is outside the economic sphere. Economy does not mean conglomerates and trade, markets, agreements, and material profits as many think, but rather globalization as the carrier of incoming cultures, customs, traditions, behaviors, and perceptions. That is, it is a system that is a new social environment that neutralizes a continental social environment and replaces it and takes its roles, changing the system of values ​-;-​-;-and knowledge references according to its explicit and implicit interests, orientations, and goals. So, the economy and the economic bloc, is the mirror in which groups, societies, and states walk, and it is the immediate and farthest goal of everything that happens on this planet.

The economic bloc is a set of arrangements aimed at enhancing the state of economic integration between a group of countries by liberalizing trade exchange among them, coordinating financial and monetary policies, and achieving a kind of protection for their national products. It also aims to reduce the cost of development by reducing import costs, achieving optimal utilization of available resources, and improving The investment climate is to expand the market circle and unify΄-or-converge the facilities, incentives and exemptions for investment. Coordination of economic policies to face economic problems and crises.

In light of the economic blocs, the global economy has become more dynamic, especially after the emergence of different degrees of economic blocs, for example, the European -union- E U, which constitutes a developed model of economic bloc, followed by the North American Economic bloc (NAFTA), the Association of Southeast Asia (ASEAN) ASEAN), the Latin American Trade Alliance, which represents a middle degree of the trade and financial bloc, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the BRICS (BRICS) and the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, which is the lowest degree of economic integration.

The book of economic blocs and organizations for third-year students of the Economics Department at the Faculty of Economics at Damascus University included the basic features of international and Arab economic blocs, and the existing Arab, regional and international economic organizations. It also discussed very important topics such as the role of the Arab Monetary Fund and Arab development aid institutions in Arab economies. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization in the global economy.

The first chapter, entitled: Economic blocs, reviewed the level of economic bloc between countries, its benefits, methods, objectives, characteristics, and the foundations upon which the economic bloc is based. What are the elements for the continuation of economic blocs? What are the reasons for its failure? The most important economic blocs such as the European -union-, the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA), the Asian Tiger Countries Group, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APIC), the Association of Latin American Nations (LAIN), in addition to the economic blocs in The African continent and the experiences of the economic bloc in the Arab world, the Group of Eight major industrial countries, and the Group of Twenty economic bloc.

The second chapter, entitled: The Arab Economic Bloc in the Shadow of the League of Arab States, reviewed the geographical location of the Arab world, the charter and objectives of the League of Arab States. The process of joint Arab economic action, defining the goals of the Arab economic bloc and the obstacles and challenges facing this bloc. They also discussed the strategy of the Arab economic bloc and the means of activating it, the announcement of the establishment of the Greater Arab Free Trade Zone and its results, and the identification of the most important problems and difficulties encountering the full implementation of the Greater Arab Free Trade Zone. And how to measure the degree of integration of Arab economies into the global economy.

The third chapter is entitled: The economic bloc among the countries of the European -union- and the economic bloc of the BRICS group of countries. Examples of the experiences of successful economic blocs were discussed, such as the experience of the economic bloc among the countries of the European -union-, the main treaties that established the establishment of the European -union-, the institutions of the -union- and its member states, the stages of development of the European economic -union-, the process of trading the euro and the -function-s of its use as an international currency. The euro is the most ambitious project on the road to European economic -union-. The most important provisions of the Nice Agreement in the European -union- were also reviewed. As models for the experiences of modern economic blocs, the experience of the BRICS economic bloc was discussed, the reasons for the emergence and development of the BRICS bloc, the member states of the bloc, the role of emerging economies, the Third Summit of the BRICS nations, the Sanya Declaration, and the Fifth BRICS Summit – Durban, South Africa.

The fourth chapter is entitled: International and Arab economic organizations. International economic organizations were reviewed, such as the Economic and Social Council, the International Labor Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization, the International Telecommunication -union-, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the United Nations Population Fund, the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, the Organization United Nations Industrial Development – UNIDO, United Nations Development Program, United Nations Development Fund for Women, World Food Program, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations – FAO, International Fund for Agricultural Development, OPEC Fund for International Development, Islamic Development Bank, World Trade Organization, Bank Group international, and the International Monetary Fund. And Arab economic organizations such as the Council of Arab Economic Unity, the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development, the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Arab Labor Organization, the Arab Administrative Development Organization, and the Arab Center for Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands – ACSAD.

Chapter Five: The Arab Monetary Fund and Development Aid Institutions. What are the objectives of the Arab Monetary Fund and the means to achieve them? The size and forms of use of the Fund’s resources, the Fund’s role in developing Arab capital markets and promoting Arab trade exchange, and the Fund’s organizational structure. The types of Arab development aid institutions, the advantages and conditions of this aid, the sectoral distribution of loans granted by Arab development aid institutions were reviewed. And the situation of some Arab development aid institutions, such as the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development, the Kuwait Fund for Economic Development, and the Saudi Fund for Development. An overview was given of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund, the objectives of the Fund, the features of lending from the Fund, and how the Fund helps member countries.

The sixth chapter entitled: The World Trade Organization, how was the transition from the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs to the World Trade Organization, the rounds of negotiations of the seven GATT agreements, the declaration of the establishment of the World Trade Organization and its conferences, the most important advantages of the multi-trade system of the organization and trade liberalization, what are the objectives and structure of the World Trade Organization and terms of membership? The principles on which the organization is based, the agreements approved by the World Trade Organization conference in Marrakesh, the organizational structure and conditions for membership in the World Trade Organization. The practical steps for joining the organization, the economic consequences of joining the WTO, rights and obligations. and the effects of the GATT and WTO agreements on developing countries.
I ask God success.
Damascus 2013.
Prof. Dr. Moustafa El-Abdallah Al-Kafry

To download the book as PDF in Arabic, follow the link:
ΗαΚίΚαΗΚ ζΗαγδΩγΗΚ ΗαΗήΚΥΗΟνΙ

Index
Economic Blocs and Economic Organizations
Chapter I
Economic blocs
Section I – the level, the objectives , characteristics and components of the economic bloc:
• The level of economic bloc between States and its benefits.
• Methods of economic bloc, the objectives of the economic bloc.
• Foundations of economic blocs.
• Characteristics of economic blocs.
• Viability economic blocs and the reasons for its failure.
Section II – Most economic blocs:
1 – The European -union-.
2 – Free Trade Area of North America (NAFTA).
3 – Group of the Asian tigers as well as Japan and China.
4 – Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
5 – Community Cooperation Asia-Pacific Economic (APEC).
6 – Bloc, the Association of Latin American countries.
7 – Economic blocs in Africa.
8 – Economic bloc in the Arab world.
9 – Group of eight ( G 8 ).
10 – Group of twenty ( G 20 ).

Chapter II
Experiences of Arab economic bloc Under the League of Arab States



Section I – the Arab world and the Arab League:
• The geographical location of the Arab nation.
• League of Arab States.
• Charter of the Arab League.
• The objectives of the League of Arab States.
• League of Arab States and the Arab economic bloc.
Section II – Arab economic bloc (actually, objectives, constraints, strategic).
• The objectives of the Arab economic bloc.
• The march of joint Arab economic action.
• The challenges of the Arab economic bloc.
• Impediments to Arab economic bloc.
• Activating the Arab economic bloc.
• Strategy Arab economic bloc.
• Entrances to Arab economic integration which represents axes Arab common market activity.
• Factors to achieve collective self-reliance in the Arab world.
Section III – the Greater Arab Free Trade Area:
– The announcement of the establishment of the Free Trade Area of the Greater Arab.
– Rules and principles for the establishment of a free trade area major Arab.
– The problems and difficulties that hinder the full implementation of the Greater Arab Free Trade.
– The results of the Greater Arab Free Trade.
Appendix – the degree of integration of Arab economies to the global economy.

Chapter III
Economic Bloc, Experiences of the European -union-
And BRICS group

Section I – Economic Bloc between the countries of the European -union-:
• The main treaties which established the European -union-.
• EU institutions.
• Member States of the European -union-.
• Stages of the development of European economic unity.
• Passed the euro traded two major phases.
• -function-s using the euro as an international currency.
• Strict adherence to set budgets in the euro countries.
• Optimism improved economy in the euro zone countries with the introduction of the new currency.
• Europe’s most ambitious projects on the road to European unity.
• Nice Agreement in the European -union-.
• European unity on several tracks.
Section II – the economic bloc of BRICS Group
• the reasons for the emergence and development of the BRICS bloc.
• Member States in the farm BRICS.
• The role of emerging economies.
• Official meetings of the bloc, the BRICS countries.
• Third Summit of BRICS group April 2011 and the Sanya Declaration.
• The fifth Summit of the BRICS group – Durban, South Africa, March 2013

Chapter IV
International and Arab Economic Organizations

Section I – international economic organizations:
• Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
• International Labour Organization (ILO).
• The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
• International -union- of Telecommunications (ITU).
• United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
• The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
• United Nations Fund for Population (UNFPA).
• Institute of the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD).
• Organization of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
• United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
• United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM).
• World Food Programme (WFP).
• Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
• International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
• OPEC Fund for International Development.
• Islamic Development Bank ( I D B ).
• World Trade Organization (WTO).
• The World Bank Group (IBD).
• International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Section II – Arab economic organizations
• Arab Economic Unity Council.
• Arab Organization for Agricultural Development.
• Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC).
• Arab Labor Organization.
• The Arab Organization for Administrative Development.
• The Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands arid ACSAD.

Chapter V
Arab Monetary Fund (AMF) And development aid institutions

Section I – the Arab Monetary Fund and the Arab development aid institutions:
• The objectives of the Arab Monetary Fund.
• The means to achieve the objectives of the Arab Monetary Fund.
• Arab Monetary Fund resources.
• The use of resources “lending”.
• Fund’s role in the development of Arab financial markets.
• Fund’s role in promoting Arab trade.
The organizational structure of the Arab Monetary Fund (IMF).
Arab development aid institutions:
• Advantages Terms of Arab development aid.
• Terms of defects Arab development aid.
• Sectoral distribution of loans.
• Types of development finance institutions.
• The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development:
o Abu Dhabi Fund for Development.
o Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development.
o Saudi Fund for Development.
Section II – the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Monetary Fund (IMF)
• International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD):
o the organizational structure of the World Bank.
• IMF:
o the objectives of the International Monetary Fund.
o help the International Monetary Fund by Member States.
o Lending attributes of the International Monetary Fund.

Chapter VI
World Trade Organization (WTO)



Section I – The transformation of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs to the World Trade Organization:
• The seven rounds of GATT negotiations.
• Declaration of the World Trade Organization.
• Conferences of the World Trade Organization.
• The most important advantages of the multilateral trading system of the organization and trade liberalization.
Section II – the objectives of the World Trade Organization, structure and membership requirements:
• The objectives of the World Trade Organization.
• Principles upon which the World Trade Organization.
• Conventions adopted by the Conference of the World Trade Organization Marrakech.
• Organizational structure of the organization.
• Terms of membership in the World Trade Organization.
• Facts and fantasies about the World Trade Organization.
Section III – Arab member states of the World Trade Organization:
• Practical steps for Algeria’s accession to the World Trade Organization.
• The economic consequences of Syria’s accession to the GATT and the WTO.
• Rights and obligations.
• Maximize the benefits and minimize losses.
• The effects of the GATT agreements on developing countries.



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