Prof. Dr Moustafa El-abdallah Al Kafry
2024 / 2 / 1
This study is an attempt to identify the parties that impose sanctions, and the parties and institutions targeted by imposing these sanctions, and discuss the effectiveness of sanctions on the targeted countries´-or-individuals, with a preliminary analysis of the data of the results of economic sanctions on Syria during the period 2011-2020, and review the results of sanctions on the Syrian economy in the language of numbers, and their impact on the state and the Syrian citizen.
I – Introduction:
Syria has suffered from cumulative economic and political sanctions since 1979, and these sanctions in the pre-2011 stage were characterized by their selectivity and-limit-ed scope of the targeted parties, and their nature as specific sanctions and imposed by one country (the United States of America), while economic sanctions have acquired an Arab and international dimension since 2011, in terms of the multiplicity of types of sanctions and the breadth of the targeted parties and those involved in imposing them.
What is happening in Syria is a major conspiracy and an unjust economic war aimed at the progress and development that Syria has reached during the first decade of the third millennium as a result of economic openness, development and modernization, strengthening the capabilities of the economy, increasing growth rates, allowing the private sector to exercise its national role and providing a suitable environment for investment. (Where Syria entered the field of new industries, especially cars, achieving added values, doubling public treasury revenues, increasing bank deposits, increasing the number of industrial cities, reopening the Damascus Stock Exchange, licensing real estate development and financing companies, the budget deficit fell to large degrees and the volume of debt fell to zero, and this constitutes strengths that were calculated for the Syrian economy, with weaknesses in the Syrian economy represented in low growth rates for some sectors, low per capita income, increased population growth rates and others. These indicators may hinder the process of inclusive and sustainable development). 
II – The concept of economic sanctions:
Economic sanctions: A measure used by states, regional and international organizations´-or-their bodies to stop commercial transactions with another country and its nationals with the intention of economic pressure on it. Economic sanctions include the suspension of economic, trade, financial and investment relations with the target country and its individuals and institutions.
Economic sanctions are usually imposed as a tool to punish the target state, its institutions and citizens, and sanctions may take a political dimension, and sanctions may be comprehensive targeting the entity of the state in all its sectors,´-or-selective affecting the interests of entities´-or-individuals belonging to the target state. States may resort to imposing sanctions gradually,´-or-imposing them -dir-ectly without resorting to gradual pressure on the targeted countries.
Economic sanctions may reach the stage of economic embargo, which means: (imposing sanctions on dealing with companies affiliated with the countries targeted by sanctions, preventing investment in some of their vital sectors such as oil and vital industries, and banning the export of some goods to them, especially strategic ones, in addition to the above, financial, air and military embargo, and the international sanctions imposed on Iran against the background of its nuclear program between 2006-2015 by the United Nations and the European -union-, as well as the United States of America, are an example of an economic embargo, where sanctions were imposed. Companies related to Iran’s nuclear program, prevent investments in the oil sector, and ban the export of dual-use equipment. The air and military embargo is the example of the one imposed on Libya by Security Council Resolution 748 (1992) in connection with the Lockerbie case. 
The unlawful use of sanctions, economic blockade and tools of negative interference in the internal economic and social affairs of an independent State by a state´-or-group of states is unlawful. This falls under the rubric of “international economic terrorism”, especially if it contradicts international laws and norms and diplomacy, as long as these economic sanctions were coercive and harmful, affecting large segments of the population, including women, children and the elderly-;- economic sanctions are no less painful than what wars and terrorism cause. 
The unjust economic blockade on the Syrian people and the economic sanctions on Syria are another aspect of the war on Syria, and even more, they aim to impoverish the people and increase the state of social deterioration, and thus the goal of their goals is to punish countries and peoples and force them to modify their political approach.
In 2004, sanctions were strengthened after Syria rejected the American occupation of Iraq and its continuous support for the resistance in Lebanon, after which the European -union- imposed sanctions on oil exports and banking transactions, prevented dealing with the Central Bank of Syria, froze Syrian assets and stopped financing government trade. This has had negative effects on the economy, especially on Unemployment rates, exchange rates, oil production and export, and the foreign trade sector was the most affected by the economic sanctions on Syria.
Economic and social impacts Economic sanctions imposed on Syria and neighboring countries
I - Introduction: 2
II - The concept of economic sanctions: 3
III - What are the economic sanctions imposed on Syria?. 5
1- Economic sanctions imposed by the League of Arab States against Syria: 6
2- Economic sanctions imposed by the European -union- countries against Syria: 7
3- Economic sanctions imposed by the United States against Syria: 9
4 – Economic sanctions imposed by various countries against Syria: 10
– Economic sanctions imposed by Switzerland against Syria: 11
– Economic sanctions imposed by Turkey against Syria: 11
– Economic sanctions imposed by Australia against Syria: 11
– Canada’s economic sanctions against Syria: 12
– Japan’s economic sanctions against Syria: 12
IV - The impact of economic sanctions on Syria. 12
– The effectiveness of sanctions on the Syrian economy: 13
– Consequences of the US and European economic sanctions imposed: 16
Who is affected by the economic sanctions imposed on Syria?. 17
Impact of economic sanctions on Syria And neighboring countries: 18
V - Conclusion: 19
Research published in the Journal of Political Thought
Issued by the Arab Writers -union- – Damascus
 – Intervention of Dr. Mustafa Al-Abdullah Al-Kafri, at the seminar on the economic war on Syria and the role of the media, held by the National Media Council at the Cham Hotel, at the beginning of May 2016, see, Tishreen newspaper, 04/05/2016.
 – Sanctions and their impact on regimes,
 – Intervention of Dr. Mustafa Al-Abdullah Al-Kafri, in the dialogue seminar on the economic war on Syria and the role of the media, previous source.
 – Intervention of Dr. Qahtan Al-Sioufi at the seminar on the economic war on Syria and the role of the media, held by the National Media Council at the Cham Hotel, at the beginning of May 2016, see, Tishreen newspaper, 04/05/2016.