Prof. Dr. Moustafa El-abdallah Al Kafry
2023 / 1 / 15
It is known that human needs are multiple and growing, and everyone has his needs for goods and services, just as society has his needs. Diversity and growth in human needs means the multiplicity and increase in the quantities of goods and services that human needs need, as well as the renewal and growth of these needs over time.
Economics is the science that examines human behavior related to the use of available economic resources to meet and satisfy growing human needs and desires, that is, human behavior related to the production, exchange, distribution and consumption of material experiences in society.
Man living in a society and at a certain stage of historical development feels the need for different things. He needs food, clothing, shelter, and many other things. Some of these needs are natural and necessary, which must be satisfied to sustain life, while others arise from the fact that people collectively live "society", determined by a set of complex factors that make up the so-called "culture" of a given society. Human needs may be individual´-or-collective. (Although human needs are originally derived from life necessity, they are the result of the existence of society and adapted to the stage of development of that society.) 
If the loss of something and the need for it causes pain in the soul, then obtaining this thing and satisfying a person s need inherits pleasure and satisfaction. Therefore, we note that man is keen to meet his needs and achieve his goals in the shortest way.
Need: It is the feeling of the need to obtain something that is not available, and need is the axis on which all economic matters revolve and because of which man does work and production. The feeling of need is not specific to man alone, but to all who have life in this world, such as plants and animals. Human needs are so diverse that they are difficult to quantify, yet they can be categorized according to their location, from satisfying human character to material and literary (intellectual) needs.
Thus, the need is one of the natural and social necessities necessary for the continuation of the material life of man. (It is the instinctive´-or-mental feeling that drives a person to achieve the indispensable things either for the survival of his life, to preserve his health,´-or-to complete the reasons for his security and happiness, whether that feeling arises from desire´-or-from necessity).
In his daily life, a person needs many needs, including what is necessary for the continuation of his life, when he feels the need for food,´-or-to save his life from the ravages of nature, when he feels his need for shelter,´-or-to protect his health from the influence of heat and cold and ward off diseases. And pains. In addition to other needs for self-defense and access to comfort and happiness, which are called intellectual, cultural and other needs that have been decreed by the developments of life and civilization, which are always constantly increasing, and do not stop at a-limit-. Therefore, there are no-limit-s to human needs. If a person satisfies one need, another need soon arises.
Meeting one human need may need more than one commodity (if a person wants to write, he needs paper, ink, and pen). Therefore, commodities are sometimes integrated to satisfy human need. This is called the complementarity of need. Commodities also compete with each other to meet human need by having alternative goods that can meet the same need. The same task is carried out by competitiveness.
Needs vary in importance and severity, as well as in time, place and people. Needs have the character of "unlimited".  It is difficult to divide needs into-limit-ed types because of their large number and diversity, but they can be divided into three main groups: necessities, secondary needs, and luxury needs. This is in accordance with the material, moral and social conditions of man.
The first group - necessary material needs that no one can dispense with, such as food, drink, clothing, and housing. The need for food, clothing and housing appears in primitive man as well as in man in the most advanced and civil societies, and the difference here appears in the ways of satisfying these same needs, for example, primitive man satisfies his need for food by eating raw meat, and his need for clothing through the skins and fur of wild animals, and his need for home through housing in the caves, while we see that man The civilized, especially in developed and rich societies, meets his need for food through selected foods, wears different urban clothes, and lives in well-furnished houses, and yet we see this´-or-that man satisfies and satisfies the same needs that are called biological needs, and this is the first group of human needs.
The second group - secondary needs, including those that are luxurious, such as tourism, watching theater, cinema, reading, and culture. They appear in varying´-or-in degrees, and this is related to the development of man and his relations with the rest of the individuals and the change of circumstances surrounding him. In other words, we can say that the scope and type of this group of needs are related to the cultural level of the society and can be called cultural needs, such as theater, books, carpets, paintings, trips outside the country and the car, and from It is easy to see that the higher the cultural level of a particular society, the greater the size of this type of need.
The third group - the needs of luxury and extravagance, such as the establishment of clubs and associations (tools of play).
The distinction between the three aforementioned groups is relative, and varies according to structure, age, time and place. The need can be a habit that  must be met like smoking, and the needs are spread among people by imitation and quotation, and the need may be inherited.
The process of dividing needs into biological (natural essential) and cultural (luxury) needs is relative, meaning that there are no clear boundaries between these two types of needs in any country, rich´-or-poor. In addition, some cultural needs may become biological natural needs in a society as the potential in that society grows and develops.
If we look at things from another angle, we can divide the needs into individual needs and collective needs, for example, the need for clothing is an individual need that everyone satisfies in his own way, and the need for security and the needs of entertainment, roads, means of transportation ... etc. are collective needs. The emergence of collective needs is the result of the common life that people live in societies, and these needs increase as the standard of living rises and its complexity increases.
Study source link: http://almustshar.sy/archives/9620
 - Oscar Lanka Political Economy, Part One, Arabization of Dr. Muhammad Salman Hassan, Dar Al-Tali a, Beirut 1967, pp. 63-64.
 - See: Aref al-Khatib, Economics, Government Press, Damascus, 1925, p. 79.
 - Abdul Qa-dir- al-Azm, Economics, Syrian University Press, Damascus, 1931, p. 18.
 - See: Dr. Hafez Yaqzan Bu Hamdan, Principles of Political (Social) Economy, Dar Yaqzan for Scientific Studies, 1983, p. 45.
 - Abdul Qa-dir- al-Azm, previous source, p. 15.