2021 / 8 / 25
In the early 1990 witnessed Algeria radical transformations in the political area, where these transformations imposed by the Algerian state, which were accompanied by the growth of the Democratic Process and the emergence of the so-called multi-party political impact was to hold a presidential election to Parliament by the open area in front of the political practice and the establishment of political parties, associations and organizations of civil society to the side that has been witnessed in Algeria also shifts of concrete information, opened the door of multilateralism media since the events of October 1989, which resulted in Algeria, to enter in a new era of political change, where the valley by institutions to increase the relationship between the political and practical Connectivity relations, where the so-called elections for a group of candidates in the framework of the multi-party system, and here we have the problem:
What is the role played by election campaigns in the formation of political awareness The Algerian individual?
First: the definition of election campaign:
Election in the language is elected thing any chosen by ballot and election is, as well as choice and selection, in constitutional jurisprudence scholars known as election several definitions of all ----dir----ected solutions being the peaceful rotation of power and choice of rulers will of peoples the legislative sense knows that choosing deputies through the election.
In the view of others that the election is the procedure by which the members of the people who have the conditions set by the Constitution and the law in each state depending on the highways special constitutional political trends in choosing their representatives, who have their behaviors and objectives are compatible with the wishes of the people, where they initiate procuratorate authority for them.
The first concerned a horseless cart can t vote´-or-choose tiredness election to choose people´-or-a party´-or-politicians, and the second is the Credentials Committee through the election authorities authorizing the people left-wing deputies as a corollary to this, Credentials Committee several mandates. (1)
As is the exercise of democratic election, confer the voters to exercise their right to sovereignty to choose the rulers through voting together in political decision-making through election ruling body, which provides legitimate presence.
Because voting is one way to give legitimacy to the site of the person´-or-persons,´-or-power positions at the university level, organizations´-or-on the national level, this legitimacy is always of a particular kind, often described as a democracy based on the election, either based on Genetics´-or-self-selection," former selection for the feasible successor" revolution´-or-military coup "On the one hand, and depending on the planned´-or-supporting between the two systems together in a combination of an elected authority and executive in both languages,´-or-a combination of two legislative power, one team and the other between elected appointed))2). Election campaign, according to the definition of Munir veil is: "The words of a group of political echelons communicative planned and subject to follow-up and evaluation, exercised by a candidate´-or-a party in the case of certain length of time, prior to the date of the elections officially established (short-term), with a view to achieving victory in the elections by obtaining the largest number of votes using different means of communication and methods of inducing effective targeting the electorate. (3)
in the ----dir----ection of the last known to others:as a group of activities by the political party´-or-candidate with a view to providing the public and voters with information on its program and policy objectives, and to try to influence them with all the means and methods and capabilities available through all channels of communication and persuasion in order to get the votes of the voters and win in the elections. (4)
electoral campaign, then the words of Communicative activity by political candidate to To provide the public with regard to the voter s campaign of programs, with a view to influencing objectives ex gratia in various ways available to him.
Campaigning non-posts, we find the most important ----function----s of certain positions and conditions in certain specific time´-or-the expression of the political system in various ways, as well as the definition of the program a certain candidate, which, I mean, the embodiment of the points the process that advances were thronged the candidate in order to develop strategies of action on the basis of conditions experienced by the state of different aspects, as it is the product of to see the candidate for the purpose of providing solutions in the case of a crisis´-or-theses Future. (5)
Secondly: factors of success and failure of brackets:
Electoral and highlights the effectiveness of election campaigns in the use of means and methods to serve its objectives, including help to influence in their constituencies, although the means and methods is a key factor in the success of the electoral campaigns´-or-failure, but there are other factors that control the success factors, multiplied by the success of the electoral campaigns and factors failure to include other points including:
-pre-setting the sentence through all initial studies to build a database of the election campaign, where political, economic and social conditions, needs and problems actual opinion leaders and influential figures and candidates and election candidates and their programs and former competitors and all necessary information for planning practical electoral campaigns.
-continuous follow-up of the campaign for the election during the course of implementation and provide more of the new information every day about the problems and the facts of the changes and trends in public opinion to take advantage of any amendments of the campaign.
-recruit and mobilize all the possibilities available for candidates and to use them.
- Commitment To objectivity in understanding and analysis and presentation of information and data so that we can benefit from it without bias .
On the other hand, we find that, in turn, affected by several factors in the election campaign, which, therefore, lead to failure, as follows:
-The lack of attention to the study of the prior provincial previous election campaigns.
- Lack of data and information is available.
- not to the use of experts and specialists in planning electoral campaigns.
- The lack of safeguards to ensure that the appropriate planning and safety and accuracy electoral campaigns.
-conflicting positions between the candidate and his aides.
- Lack of clarity of vision for the logo and the message basic issues electoral electoral program.
-away from the substantive and the trend toward extravagance in promises and expectations without scientific basis and without the capacity for implementation.
-Failure to provide the results of the election campaigns of mistakes previous campaigns to others.
- The lack of cooperation among various political Candidates, parties and movements to develop awareness of political participation of the citizens originally non-participants in the election process.
Therefore keep the success of the electoral campaigns´-or-failure depends on several factors, ranging from their importance of the area of each other, and the electoral campaigns that take into account these factors to avoid what can lead to the failure of the campaign. (6)
Thirdly: the means and methods of political campaigns:
the political campaigns of the highlights of the activities of political marketing and confirms this huge amount of studies and research and field theory, which had been appointed an analysis and interpretation of all aspects of such campaigns, especially in the Arab States, but it can take advantage of these studies in the western regions, but that it could take advantage of these studies, even in the Arab regions, with their development, including appropriate conditions and conditions of Arab societies and the importance of recognizing these studies in lost political developments that I saw all Arab political organization, which is moving toward the development of such systems toward more reforms and development, which means an increase in the need to identify the scientific methods, including methods of communications and requests its methods of communication and which -methods of communication and ----dir----ect methods: as a whole, which depend on the ----dir----ect contact between the candidate and voters, there are four main methods of communication and mobilization can be surveilling ----dir----ect in the election campaign, is as follows:
* Transit communication with voters:
can be divided into ----dir----ect and in----dir----ect methods They are as follows:
1 * Contact transit Voters:
this is through tour in markets and neighborhoods, which take place through the handshake with voters and the exchange of small talk with them, the appropriate tool to provide a picture of the candidate and create public perceptions of the candidate s knowledge of voting when voters polls show their responses and opinions on the candidates, on the one hand and influence on the one hand to make them aware of the need political participation.
2 * mini-symposia:
which is in associations and various media organizations and political tool is the most appropriate method to provide ideas and principles of candidate is required and detailed manner, where he had an opportunity to explain his ideas, sidestepping the way the rhetoric which appeared in recent times when some of the candidates in the election campaign priseden of the Repubpic Avril 2014, Address reason is the major task in these seminars, the candidate must be prepared to have. (7)
3 * conferences:
the Conference is the most important political event during the campaign political´-or-electoral lists, for example, shows the extent of the support for the candidate of the through mobilizing the greatest possible number of attendance, as well as demonstrate its ability to address and elaborate his ideas in convincing arguments without complex And stir voters enthusiasm and left strong personal impressions of the candidate with the larger goal, which can be achieved in election conferences Does not appear without conferences only when political campaigns for voters, but may exceed the campaigns against a particular political regime consists only, this reinforces the constitution of 1989 is radical leap in the history of Algeria.
4 * election rallies:
The appropriate way to identify voters candidate name, format and to show the extent of the support enjoyed by through the participation of a large number of his supporters in the march, and can be evolved to be accompanied by the megaphone, which broadcasts to the citizens of the name of the candidate and some of his competitors and ideas, and it can lift some signs that bear the name of the candidate and some ideas and principles, and can be repeating some of the slogans, linking the name of the candidate and logo and ideas and principles, the more slogans written´-or-spoken of traditional slogans, whenever touching the candidate string sense of voters to individuals not associated with traditional electoral weight centers. (8)
5 * posters and banners: among the
traditional tools of nominees in their campaigns is Sign the cost of basic so that whenever the candidate succeeded in using these traditional tools innovative way, whenever he was able to win over and raising a group of voters non-associated centers electoral weight.
One of the most important methods of subornation political and media political asylum to the logo, which is the brief words and phrases are simple and easy to reduced to between characters´-or-political program for the candidate for the elections, and refers to the principles used to stumble, Cabinet known identity card to go political party candidate´-or-personal.
The sign is not suitable tool for political message´-or-electoral up the content of the electoral campaign, but their role is-limit-ed to the definition the candidate name and logo only compared with other methods.
It has become the emblem of the most important pillars upon which the electoral political campaigns in order to influence quickly in the voters, especially when the chance of success in the elections were close, it may be in the form of authorization´-or-knowledge´-or-color´-or-cover.
Accordingly, could be the introduction of the electoral campaign slogans existing today in the political arena, especially in Algeria in coincidence with electoral event 17/4/2014, and we are taking the political campaign free candidate," Abdul Aziz Bouteflika.the label Spam to him, including the slogan of the campaign, which is "which with Algeria" and was adopted by the Group of slogans Supportive, which aims to involve citizens in the vote in favor of it the logo is based on a number of criteria on the basis of which the beginning of the confidence of the candidate in the public as well as renewal of the Covenant through the What his successor revolution generation Bilounise came to focus on a range of dimensions of programd political objectives. (9)
6 * political campaign political marketing:
a marketing campaign as a method of political concept is more comprehensive on-site political marketing political marketing, where is the parties to the process, these principles in political contacts, especially time Election campaigns. (10)
This method is used by the means of communication with a view to marketing and recognition of its acceptance, in this Palm is almost similar in their political ideas with traders, when offering their goods in a manner that is attractive and effective to the public with a view to promoting them´-or-sell it thus represents the process upon which the electoral campaigns, especially by To highlight aspects that serve the citizen of the candidate s program.
7 * The Internet:
the Internet as a method of a new election campaign as strayed into forming a large in support of democracy, this is not a specific target, but as it is essential to him, since the Internet has established a global society continues with some of the Internet, which made the means for the exercise of democracy.
Where is the matter of the political side is not-limit-ed only to the methods of communication, but other political evolution of the matter to the extent these methods and the degree of their impact in labor contact in all its forms, and in this context, so that one of the reasons for the campaign, which has made the president of America, hope that the uproar and success is intensive and effective use of the Internet, which is expected to be considered policy forever, where the "New York Times" in the to monitor the impact of the Internet on politics and electoral campaign Barack Obama as a model for this influence, but there has been a historic shift in relation to the communication technology radically change the face of the policy, especially in Algeria, which is still in its possession at the end, but in how to use and benefit from this shortcomings, especially, if it is linked to elections season Through this network, but they find new loader only to entertain themselves by irony of the candidates. This is due to the work of the electoral campaigns based on the candidates in how tFourth: Election Campaigns and its role in the industry opinion:
It is well known that the public opinion is formed of the ethical issues and the disagreement is only if opposes the views, trends and attitudes, and that the second characteristic of forming public opinion is to raise these issues election campaigns, which put on an ongoing basis, therefore, to push the citizen, go to polling stations and vote, that is why we find some States, especially France to devote the principle of competition, in the summit in our perception of the fact that political competition always lead to development and work more than the fact that the rewards in access gives the same chances of competition in the delivery of its information and persuasion in its ----dir----ections allowed per capita in the end absorption data and understanding and thus forming a position´-or-The view is invoked, can discuss with others, persuasion´-or-conviction and there is forming a view on the issues raised in conscious choice and its outcome, which is allowed in the end of the assistance of the responsible to take the right decision of the popular referenceo forward ideas audience candidate. (11)
here, we refer to the contemporary political theory in Their analysis policy world look to him, to that group of them interactive interactive mechanically according to the law of chapter and reactions, as it deals with the impact on toward the ballast for its total. (12)
Fifthly: political awareness:
I mean raise awareness of the acquisition of the individual and the community background of knowledge to enable them to the analysis of the issues before the international and national arenas and the perception of the conditions of the community and problems, and there is a provision to identify its position toward it and another perception of the individual sites of its society and its surroundings and to know the nature of the circumstances surrounding policy, social and economic actors and influential forces in the industry and the absence of political awareness will stall the role of the individual and the community, it must be to know the reality, I mean, the environment surrounding it, including its culture, which determine the nature of its inception. (13)
Therefore, go "to the nightclub " to possess awareness of, I mean, the person realize the reality and then his audience, including intervene to change certain routes.
Also recalls the concept of political awareness to see members of social groups in society political system of political processes and political representatives, including political parties electoral campaigns and attitudes of individuals, and the extent of their participation in its activities.
Sixthly: settings for political awareness: The political awareness of basic settings, we find the following:
the many scientists, with Claude Levi-Strauss, social scientists and the determinants of the political awareness of the President is the climate of public opinion that has been confirmed by the individual Miling me in the context of the study social determinants of public opinion, as it is considered that the climate is the recognition of the individual and his knowledge Adopted certain point of view, and from there it is clear that the importance of the individual, knowledge and behavior of the individual, and it is clear that the political awareness of the citizen depends on the degree of culture and education, which is devoted to the people the culture and education Crown positive people to participate effectively in political work through the expression of their views in all different expressions, whether through elections and political contact´-or-through political means of communication.
In addition to this, we find the settings secondary political awareness and knowledge of young people s awareness of political, community and its issues and problems and its further political participation any aware of political process any, I mean, how to participate in the impact of social structure and here, the development of political awareness of political culture and the like lifting the intensity of political participation, which is the product of political socialization, including sources any institutions of socialization policy, which is no longer a source of acquisition of political awareness. (14)
is the political socialization tools as the main source of the media in the formation of political awareness, through the role played by the daily follow-up of events and its interpretation and analysis in the absence of this activity that lead to isolation and underdevelopment, which is interpreted by many States, in particular those developed on the pattern of The prevailing political thought because political thought is deep understanding of reality, which translates in certain political philosophy, this is the end of it, particularly in Algeria, through the participation of citizens in political issues, through which he could acquire several political orientations political culture, political socialization process. (15)
Seventh: Election Campaigns and elaboration of the concept of political awareness:
Lead electoral campaigns larger role in forming a political awareness of the activities of candidates during the inherent extensibility, which is reflected in the current thinking of youth and orientations in the present and the future, which I understood many of the developed countries and became lost, and with the awareness of political thinking is linked to educational level, but the fact that the individual can acquire a culture of political campaign events followed up daily, which should work in Algeria, where interpreted some analyzes and studies to a campaign of journalists, critics, that the overall electoral campaigns, which passed by Algeria and today is still suffering from the province of youth in this respect, says Boumaraf Press: "The real value of any election of the weight of the start of the runs to it, the The candidates they had the power and the credibility of the public opinion in support of more than this, on the one hand, not only his opinion that the electoral process in Algeria has not yet reached the transparency, credibility, and informatics, like other developed countries, where it says to run in the election, on the one hand and the results known in advance, makes the public scenes and head of youth was frustrated by fate, why at the disposal of all these Millions on elections is known, and why pay to go to elections strongly, all these statements to the effect that the Algerian citizen did not breathing after political openness, it should be noted that the political parties with heavy weight and deliberating in Algeria had melted into one program and all those energizes partisans were quick to support a certain candidate and became political system plays the same traveled music without the existence of real opposition that contribute to the diversification of the scene. (16)
In conclusion, we can conclude that the election campaigns is the political activity of Communicative interact in which many of the categories of the society, such as young people, women, Senate election campaigns for money in the composition of the awareness of the role of the several electoral institutions in reaching and influencing the formation and identify the composition has the so-called political culture, as well as campaigns also play its role in upgrading the themselves first of a workshop of individuals and the public to the citizenship of all humanitarian dimensions and then political, economic, with a view to forming a maturity and underdevelopment.
1-Fadil Dliyou, and others, political liaison in Algeria, Constantine: detective informed the meeting and development, 2010, pp. 42-43.
2-Good Lazrag, election campaign s presidential election runoff during 2009 the Algerian press, p123.
3-Safwat the world, political liaison election propaganda, Cairo: Dar es Salaam Arab renaissance, 2007, P. 88, 89
4-Zakria Bin small, electoral campaigns: Concept and means and methods, Algeria: Casablanca Hamziyiyah publishing distribution, P.2009, p12.
5. Mohammad Bin Masoud al-Bashir, introduction to political communication, library Alkibat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, P. 1997, P. 105
6-Abdul Ghaffar Rashad, political liaison and democratization, Egypt: library of ethics Cairo, 2007, P. 85
7-Mohammad Bin Masoud al-Bashir, op. cit.,p106.
8-the Repertory itself, p107.
9-Ibid. at p.
10-Abdel Ghaffar Rashad, op. cit., p108.
11-Fadil Dliyou , et al. , op. cit. at 99:98.
12-Adel Fathi static Abdel Hafez, political theory, Alexandria: Casablanca University Press and Publication and distribution, 2000, P. 71
13-Gariil almond and Powell, Jr., Comparative Politics in our time, interpretation: Hisham Nassar, Egypt: House, 1998, p55.
14-Fadil Dliyou, and others, op. cit.,p106.
15-on the west, the campaign and the political liaison in Algeria through discomfiture as 2009 in Algeria, Department of Sociology, University of Constantine, 2009, pp. 102-103.