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Any theory could be expressed by an equation. From this perspective, philosophical theories could be presented in mathematical equations, clarifying their contents.This is a useful method for explaining any philosophical theory. An example of this method is the following:
Defining Philosophy: Philosophical Equation
Philosophy = analyzing concepts + explaining natural phenomena + solving intellectual problems + critical thinking (i.e. evaluating theories and arguments in light of logical and rational reasoning).
Some other examples of presenting philosophical theories through relying on philosophical equations are the following:
Platonism (i.e. the philosophy of Plato): Philosophical Equation
Platonism = idealism + realism + rationalism.
Plato is an idealist because he believes that the Forms are ideal. He is a realist because he believes that the Forms are real, i.e., they actually exist. Plato is also a rationalist because he believes that logical and rational reasoning without relying on the senses leads us to knowledge.
Plato’s Idealism: Philosophical Equation
Plato’s Idealism = the Forms exist in an abstract and ideal realm separate from the material universe + our material universe consists of shadows of the ideal Forms.
Plato s theory of knowledge: Philosophical Equation
Knowledge = belief + justification + truth.
We know that P = we believe that P is true + we are justified in believing that P is true + P is, in fact, true.
Other philosophical equations are possible, such as:
Rationalism versus Empiricism: Philosophical Equations
Rationalism = a priori reasoning + innate beliefs.
Empiricism = a posteriori reasoning + no innate beliefs.
Realism versus Antirealism: Philosophical Equations
Philosophical Realism = the world is mind-independent + truth is correspondence to reality + universals exist (such as existing in an abstract realm).
Philosophical Antirealism = the world is mind-dependent + truth is demonstrability (i.e. ability to prove) + universals don’t exist (except as ideas´-or-words).