Haseeb Shehadeh

2017 / 5 / 18

Haseeb Shehadeh
University of Helsinki

Arabic is a Semitic language spoken in a profusion of dialects by approximately 400 million Arabs. Furthermore, the language has further been arabicised across a vast area extending from the Arabian Gulf in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west in addition to being spoken by millions of people living in the diaspora. Arabic is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. It is the official1 language in all Arab countries and a co-official language in Chad, Eritrea, Israel, Mali and Senegal as well as in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and the African -union-.2 From the second half of the eighth century until the end of the eleventh century, Arabic was the scientific language of mankind. Along with a great body of the world’s science, literature and history are also preserved in this language. Arabic -script- is the second most widely used after the Latin alphabet and is used in many other languages, such as Kurdish, Malay, Pashto, Persian, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Urdu.
In Palestine Arabic was the dominant language beginning in the year 634 and continuing until 1948. In some periods, such as during the long Ottoman rule from 1519 to 1917, the language of government was Turkish, whereas spoken Arabic was the vernacular. At the same time several European languages, such as French, German, Greek, Italian and Russian, were used in Palestine for religious reasons, especially in large cities like Jerusalem, Haifa, Bethlehem, Nazareth.3
Hebrew, on the other hand, has been a literary and liturgical language for a little over seventeen centuries and was ‘revived’ as a spoken vernacular only towards the end of the nineteenth century in Palestine by a group of scholars and nationalists of whom Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (1858-1922) was the most famous. This emergence of a new vernacular on the basis of ancient written languages, Biblical Hebrew and Mishnaic Hebrew, was a unique phenomenon. It should be noted that Jews have spoken and written Arabic, so-called Judaeo-Arabic, for more than 1,200 years. Before the establishment of Israel most of the Old Yishuv and in particular the Youth Guard (Hashomer Hatzair) were conversant in Arabic. Palestinian Arabic and Israeli Hebrew have been in asymmetric contact for more than a century during which a state of conflict and tension prevailed between the two national communities.4 Today almost half of the population of the Jewish Nation-State know the language of Arabic.
By 1948 Hebrew was suddenly the main language of the overwhelming majority of the Jews in the newly established State of Israel. For the ultra-Orthodox Jews in Israel, Yiddish served them in speech as well as in writing. Since its establishment, Israel has been an ethnic nation-state in which a variety of languages is used, and the codes governing when a given language is to be used are very ordinary.5 In the declaration of Israel’s independence 19486 it is stated among other things that Israel “... will be based on the precepts of liberty, justice and peace taught by the Hebrew Prophets-;- will uphold the full social and political equality of all its citizens, without distinction of race, creed´-or-sex-;- will guarantee full freedom of conscience, worship, education and culture ...”.
More than half of the Jews in the world - approximately 13 million - do not speak Hebrew. It is striking that Arabs (the Palestinians of 1948 and 1967 and the Syrians of the Golan in 1973) form a remarkable percentage of Hebrew speakers today. Several dozen of languages are spoken in Israel owing to the fact that Israel is the destination of Jewish immigrants from all over the world. Among the languages spoken by one hundred thousand speakers´-or-more are the following: Modern Hebrew (6 million)-;- Arabic (1.5 million)-;- Russian (1 million)-;- modern Judaeo Arabic-Morrocan, Tunisian and Algerian (more than 300,000)-;- Romanian (200,000)-;- Yiddish (200,000)-;- Ladino (100,000)-;- Polish (100,000)-;- Iraqi Judaeo Arabic (100,000).7
The linguistic policy in the State of Israel is complex and expressed in more than one law.8 According to article no. 82 enacted in the year 1922 by the Privy Council of the British Mandate in Palestine, there were three official languages: English, Arabic and Hebrew, with English having legal priority.9 This priority and the status of English was cancelled in 1948, in article no. 15b. Arabic has a unique position in Israel: de jure it is the second official language, but de facto it is marginal.10 However, in reality Modern Hebrew has been the only official language and the dominant language in Israel since 1948.11 The common view in Israel holds that maintaining other languages weakens the national identity of the Jews, and thus there is a need to teach merely Hebrew and English in the schools. Nevertheless, in the summer of 2008 right-wing Jewish members of the Knesset failed to strip Arabic of its status as an official language in Israel.12 In the 1950s all Jewish attempts to convince the Arabs in Israel to write their literature in Hebrew, to learn only Hebrew´-or-to write Arabic in Hebrew characters failed.13
One of the most prominent characteristics of Israel’s population is its great diversity. In addition to the main two national groups, Jews and Arabs, there are small ethnic religious groups such as the Circassians, the Samaritans, the Filipinos, and the German Beit El. Since 1948, the population of Israel has increased nearly tenfold. The number of Palestinian Arabs living in Israel14 is estimated at 1.5 15million (before the war of 1948, it was 1.2 million) out of approximately 8 million, the whole of Israel’s population. The overwhelming majority of them identify themselves as Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship.16 Yet most of this indigenous minority would prefer to keep Israeli citizenship rather than become citizens of a future Palestinian state. Their economic and social position is desperate since the Israeli policy of Arab land confiscation hired workers in industry and agriculture owned by Jews.17 Furthermore, the very definition of Israel as a homeland for the Jewish people does not grant any advantage to Arabic language and culture.18 From the viewpoint of an Arab Palestinian, Israel has conquered his land, his collective memory and his language. Language, in S. al-Ó-;-uß-;-ari’s (1879-1968) opinion is ‘‘the spirit and life of the nation’’. 19
The Arabs in Israel live in three areas, the triangle in the centre of the country, the Galilee and Haifa districts in the north and the Negev in the south.20 The vast majority of these Arabs, 90 per cent, live in villages and the rest in a few towns and mixed cities. As a rule, the Arabs in Israel live separately in the mixed cities21 and a high percentage of Arab students prefer to attend Jewish schools in which Hebrew is the dominant language. Add to this are the Druze22, Circasian and Bedouin soldiers who serve in the Israeli Defence Army (IDF) and use Hebrew, which they consider to be their first language in comparison to Arabic, in particular, written Arabic.23 This situation has a clear influence on the families of these soldiers. It is true that Arabs in Israel and especially among the young generation are fluently bilingual (in the Palestinian Arabic dialect and in modern spoken Hebrew), and they conduct their affairs by local councils and municipalities. However, that rule is-limit-ed, and it is dependent on the Jewish central administration. Therefore, despite this local rule the Arabs write almost all of their correspondence in Hebrew. With regard to Muslim institutions everything is being carried out in literary Arabic. In Christian institutions foreign langauges such as Greek´-or-Latin are used in addition to literary Arabic. The majority of the Arab youngsters and adolescents in Israel are bilingual in Palestinian Arabic and Israeli Hebrew. Yet a great number of them are far from being native speakers of either Israeli Hebrew´-or-literary Arabic. Palestinian Arabs have always been under foreign rule. Almost half of them, over 6 million, live outside historic Palestine. Linguistically, the Palestinian-Israeli section has three languages in addition to spoken Arabic, literary Arabic, Hebrew and English. In some private schools French can be added. As a rule, pupils of oriental background have the most negative attitude to Arabs, Arabic language and culture.24
The Arab minority in Israel is only slightly reflected in the Hebrew media.25 This minority is not recognised by Israel as a national minority, but as Muslims, Christians and Druze´-or-simply, as non-Jews. It is not rare to find Arabs who take Hebrew names in order to facilitate their life and work in a Jewish environment.26 Arab citizens of Israel make up 52 per cent of the population in the Northern district, and about 50 per cent of them live in 114 various localities throughout Israel.27 Israeli Arabs account for 20 per cent of Israel’s present population, and their proportion is on the rise. It is worth special mention that not a single new Arab settlement has been set up since the establishment of Israel.28
The whole Arab population in Israel would be in a real danger of being transferred as the Israeli historian Benny Morris writes:
‘‘The Israeli Arabs are a time bomb. Their slide into complete Palestinisation has made them an emissary of the enemy that is among us. They are a potential fifth column. In both demographic and security terms they are liable to undermine the state. So that if Israel again finds itself in a situation of existential threat, as in 1948, it may be forced to act as it did then. If we are attacked by Egypt (after an Islamist revolution in Cairo) and by Syria, and chemical and biological missiles slam into our cities, and at the same time Israeli Palestinians attack us from behind, I can see an expulsion situation. It could happen. If the threat to Israel is existential, expulsion will be justified’’.29 Tzipi Livni, the previous leader of the Kadima Party, declared that there is no place for Israeli Arabs since the establishment of Palestine.30 Avraham Burg, writes “…the modern Hebrew language employs word laundering to mask an arrogant, violent and even racist attitude toward the Arab enemy. In everyday spoken Hebrew, the adjective Arab has a bad connotation. Israel’s word laundering is among the most advanced in the world….”.31
The term ‘‘demographic bomb’’ in reference to the Arabs of Israel was used by Benjamin Netanyahu in 2003.32 Avigdor Lieberman is one of the foremost supporters of the transfer of Arabs, approximately half a million people, such as the populations of Tayybe, ˒-;-Umm al-Faḥ-;-m, Bā-;-qa al-Gharbiyya. Another half a million should declare their loyalty to Zionism-;- if they refuse to do so, they would be stripped of the right to vote.33
By law learning Hebrew is compulsory in Arab Israeli public schools starting from the third grade34 and is obligatory for matriculation exams, whereas only basic Arabic is taught in Jewish schools, usually from the seventh to the ninth grades. There are approximately 1,000 Jewish teachers of Arabic. Consequently, Arabic is not obligatory in the matriculation exams for Jewish schools.35 As a rule, after graduation almost all Israeli Jewish students of Arabic get good jobs in the foreign ministry´-or-in the army Intelligence Corps, the IDF.36 At the beginning of 2010 Dr. Orna Simḥ-;-on, the Ministry of Education’s -dir-ector of the northern region of Israel, expressed her intention to have more Arabic taught in Jewish schools. Accordingly, in the academic year 2010-2011 fifth-grade Jewish pupils in 179 schools in the north of Israel studied Arabic for two hours per week. The idea of small numbers of Jews studying Arabic has largely been carried out with the idea of “know your enemy”37 - a means of controlling and defeating the Arabs rather than to trying to know them better as colleagues´-or-benefit from their culture and heritage´-or-to coexist with mutual respect. Israeli Jewish pupils are poorly motivated to learn Arabic, and it is safe to say that such motivation is instrumental rather than integrative.38 One can safely conclude that all attempts to teach Arabic in Israeli Jewish schools have been a long series of failures.39
Arabic has been taught in Israel like any other foreign language -as a means of communication rather than as a means of expressing national identity.40 Almost every aspect of life in Israel contributes to the process of Hebraisation and the Israelisation of the Arab national minority.41 Here, for example, is what an Israeli Jew says about learning Arabic: “It is a military asset to have a good command of arab (sic) language: Eli Cohen, our master spy, had a perfect knowledge of Arabic. Sephardis in Israel are growing old, and we need people to manage our intelligence. Let us be their 5th column.’’ (Raphael, Netanya, 21 March 2007).42 Eighty per cent of adult Jewish Israelis do not know Arabic at all, yet 16 per cent of them originate in Arab countries and their mother tongue was Arabic.43 By contrast, less than 15 per cent of Arabs in Israel do not master Hebrew. “Arabic in Israel is imprisioned in a complicated reality’’.44 Arabic, the dominant language in the Middle East, is being taught as a language of war, not as a tool for peace, and this attitude is not the result of a political´-or-governmental position, but is mainly a reflection of the social and emotional situation.45 It is clear that the Jewish Israeli ethnocentric society is intimidated by the very existence of Arabs and by the existence of their language and culture. Consequently, foreign language and culture, let alone a hostile one, threaten the self confidence of the collective community. Many reasons and pretexts are given by Jewish parents and their children as to why they do not learn Arabic. Among them—it is a a difficult language-;- learning it comes at the expense of Jewish heritage-;- Arabic is not beautiful and moreover, it is of minor significance in our modern era-;- Arabic is the language of our enemies-;- Hebrew is the common language between Jews and Arabs in Israel-;- it is sufficient to learn English as a foreign language.
Another example may be useful in this context. After completing my M. A. studies in the Hebrew language at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1967, I applied for a teaching job at the secondary school in my village, Kufur Yasif, in Western Galilee. At that time the school was in a need of qualified teachers. I wrote a short letter asking for this job and delivered it in person to the clerk in charge at the Ministry of Education for Arabs on the Street of the Prophets in Jerusalem. I was astonished to hear that my application was automatically turned down because it was written in Arabic and because at the head of the letter the word al-Quds (Arabic for Jerusalem) was given. My response was, is it not true that Arabic is an official language? Aspects of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict are described in different ways in Arabic and in Hebrew. Palestine, al-Quds, al-Nakba (disaster, 1948), muqā-;-wama (resistance), iḥ-;-tilā-;-l (occupation) in Arabic correspond to Israel, Yerushalaim, independence, terror, liberation, in Hebrew. The educational system in Israel is divided into two branches, Hebrew and Arabic, and the Druze have autonomy within the Arabic branch.46
In the light of a poll conducted in 2010 by the Israeli Institute for Democracy it is clear that 50 per cent of the Jewish population is frightened and anxious on hearing Arabic spoken in public places. The public position of Arabic, the mother tongue of the heterogeneous Arab minority in Israel, is marginal. Arab speakers of Arabic are considered the enemy. Modern Hebrew in its revival also drew on Arabic, and its slang borrowed more than one thousand Arabic words47 .
The same holds true with regard to teaching Arabic in the United States after the attacks of the September 11, 2001. Great ammounts of money are being spent in the United States to teach Americans how to acquire a good command of spoken Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Unfortunately, this emphasis on practical knowledge, mainly on speaking the language, has not extended to a policy of hiring new professors of Arabic and Islamic studies. It is thus no surprise that one comes across professors with good reputations in their own countries, but whose active knowledge of Arabic (or Hebrew) is very poor. Yet such professors are often the only sources of information and knowledge about Arabic culture, literature and Islam.48
Recently, a draft of a law intended to abolish the status of Arabic as a second official language in Israel was included on the Knesset agenda by Limor Livnat, a member of the Knesset and the minister of culture and sport, together with the Likkud party and a group of other members of the Knesset. “It cannot be, it is not appropriate´-or-reasonable that the status of one language´-or-another in the Land of Israel is identical to the status of the Hebrew language’’, said Livnat. She adds ‘‘Precisely in these times, when there are radical groups of Israeli Arabs trying to turn the State of Israel into a bi-national state, it is most urgent to put into law the unique status of the language of the Bible-the Hebrew language.’’49
This goal of this proposal is to have Hebrew be Israel’s only official language with English, Arabic and Russian as unofficial´-or-secondary languages. This attempt by Livnat was preceded by others beginning as far back as 1952.50 A decade ago, a member of the Knesset, Michael Kleiner, made a similar attempt. The same attitude was also adopted by the so-called Isreal Center for Democracy. This proposal, like many laws of discrimination against the national Arab minority in Israel51 reflects the main line of Zionist ideology, which claims that Israel is “Jewish” and therefore Arabic, the main token of Arab identity, dignity, and a mirror of culture, should not enjoy any official status.52 Language is a kind of cultural behaviour and embodies a specific philosophy of life.
There is a systematic and official discrimination against the Arabs in Israel who live in estrangement, disappointment and alienation so that they will remain a marginal element of Israeli society, which is segmented.53 Subsequently, terminating Arabic as an official language in Israel means, among other things, ignoring the existence of the native speakers of this national language who remained in their home land after the Nakba in 1948. The relationship of the Arabs in Israel to the State of Israel is, as a rule, fraught with tension, bitterness, and distrust. ‘‘My state is at war with my nation’’ is the sentiment expressed by an Arab public figure in Israel, which sums up the entire conflict.54 It seems that the title Present Absentees given by David Grossman to one of his works is close to the real situation of the Arabs in Israel.55 The state of alienation has lead to tension between Jews and Arabs in Israel and to clashes such as the events of October 2010.56
It is clear to anyone acquainted with the present situation in Israel that Arabic is widely marginalised and ignored by the authorities, an attitude reflected in official treatment, street signs57, passports, names of streets and villages (which are often erroneous),58 mass media, official correspondence, and electronic sites. Arabic, the language of the weak, is nonexistent outside the Arabic speaking community. It is not used in courts, governmental departments and public forums.59 The -dir-ectors of the Israeli Hebrew radio have a clear policy of avoiding any Arabic words such as Intifā-;-ḍ-;-a.60 Yet Arabic words can be found on stamps, banknotes, identity cards and ballot slips, though Arabic figures are not found on stamps´-or-banknotes. Arabic is heard in Israeli radio broadcasts and in television broadcasting for two to three hours a day, and this manifestation of Arabic is influenced by Hebrew.61 There are several Israeli governmental sites that do not have a single word in Arabic, including the Ministry of the Treasury, the Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Welfare and Social Services, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Religions, the Ministry of Communications, the Ministry of Agriculture and so on.62 Arabic hardly exists in the Israeli public arena.
There is not a single university in Israel in which Arab students can study the Arabic language, literature and culture in Arabic.63 Arabic is taught by using Hebrew, by Jewish and Arab lecturers alike.64 This teaching is best described as being about Arabic rather than being Arabic itself. There is no Arabic university in Israel despite the fact that demands for establishing such an institution go back to the early 1920s.65 The lack of such a university compels thousands of Arab students to attend Jordanian universities.66 The Hebrew university of Jerusalem, for instance, was established on 1 April 1925 when the number of the Jewish population in Palestine was only 100,000. It is an open secret that the achievements of students are negatively affected by using a foreign language (as in this case Hebrew would be for Arab students). The disregard of Arabic as a national and living language by Israeli universities does not increase respect for it´-or-for its speakers, either politically, socially´-or-culturally. The major activity carried out in Arabic departments in Israeli universities is translation, and largely from Arabic into Hebrew, not vice versa. Some decades ago many students referred to Arabic departments as ‘‘departments of translation’’. It is usual to find that most of the Jewish professors of Hebrew language and literature in Israel do not have any profound knowledge of Arabic, which is nevertheless one of the Semitic languages that can shed significant light on various aspects of Hebrew.
No wonder that the level of Arab students in their national language is unsatisfactory and that Arabic has low prestige in comparison to Hebrew and English. A profound knowledge of Hebrew is a prerequisite for obtaining good jobs and for getting by in Israel.67 Hebrew is considered a means of modernisation and is much easier to master than literary Arabic, which is not anyone’s mother tongue. Moreover, Hebrew serves as a window onto western culture for the Arabs in Israel. English on the other hand, is essential in any field of higher education. Consequently, Arab youths feel inferior vis-à-vis the culture of others. This state of affairs leaves semi-literary Arabic, the so-called educated Arabic (lughatu baina bain), to secondary schools and colleges in the Arab sector and to preachers in mosques and churches.68 Mention should also be made of the fact that only small numbers of Arab students in secondary schools take final exams at the four-´-or-five -unit matriculation level in Arabic. Most students are satisfied with three units only.
As a rule, spoken Arabic is used at home and among Arabs in their villages and towns. It is not uncommon to find Arab families who use Hebrew at home-;- teachers of mathematics and physics in secondary schools often use Hebrew. The textbooks of such subjects are usually in Hebrew´-or-poorly rendered from Hebrew into Arabic. Hebrew is often present in conversations held by Arab lawyers, technicians and medical doctors among themselves. Briefly listening to conversations on Israel Voice in Arabic´-or-Ashams Radio (operating indepedently since 2003 in Nazareth, Galilee) suffices to demonstrate the extent to which Hebrew has invaded spoken Arabic. Almost all such Hebrew words and expressions have clear and known Arabic equivalents. A few examples are in order: א-;-ו-;-ל-;-ם-;-, א-;-ז-;- מ-;-ה-;-, א-;-ז-;-ע-;-ק-;-ה-;-, א-;-ח-;-י-;-, א-;-י-;-ש-;-ו-;-ר-;-, ח-;-ו-;-פ-;-ש-;-, מ-;-ו-;-נ-;-י-;-ת-;-, מ-;-כ-;-ש-;-י-;-ר-;-, ת-;-ו-;-כ-;-נ-;-י-;-ת-;- ,ל-;-ה-;-ת-;-(ר-;-א-;-ו-;-ת-;-), מ-;-י-;-ץ-;-, מ-;-ע-;-ל-;-י-;-ת-;-, ק-;-ב-;-ל-;-ן-;-, — ‘hall, so what, alarm, hey bro, confirmation, holiday, taxi, instrument, plan, goodby, juice, elevator, contractor’.69 Such situations can be the first steps towards a possible extinction of Palestinian Arabic in Israel.70 ‘‘The foretelling of the extinction of spoken Arabic in Israel was predicted more than three decades ago.71 The gap between ordinary linguistic borrowings among languages, which are a cultural and social necessity, and the Hebrew invasion into the spoken Arabic in Israel is large.
I have noticed that when a person does not Hebrew words into a conversation while the conversation partner does, whenever the first person then gives an Arabic equivalent to a word, the latter gradually abandons the use of Hebrew loan words. This frequent phenomenon—inserting Hebrew words and expressions in Arabic conversation—reflects an ongoing trend among most speakers, a trend that broadens and deepens day after day. This manifestation of spoken Arabic flavoured with Hebrew elements is not fully understood by Arabs who do not know Hebrew´-or-Jews who do not know Arabic. This means that Israeli Arabs using this hybrid language will not be fully understood by their brothers and sisters in Arab countries. This insertion of Hebrew words into Arabic speech is considered by many Arabs to be a token of status and as being up- to-date and modern.
Generally speaking, Arabic in Israel is considered by the majority as the language of the undeveloped and hostile minority.72 Most Israeli Jews consider Arabic merely as an inexhaustible source of Hebrew slang, a remarkable portion of which consists of curses.73 A variety of Arabic based on local dialects is being formulated in electronic writings by young Arabs in Israel, sometimes using Latin characters and sometimes Hebrew characters. Using Hebrew to post comments on the internet is not rare, especially among the Druze. Needless to say, this variety represents a challenge to literary Arabic, fuß-;-˙-;-a and to the unity and identity of Arabs. Language is nourished when it is used on all occasions and in all fields and purposes.
It is true that the influence of Hebrew on the Arabic language in Israel during the last 65 years has been great in all linguistic features, especially in using Hebrew words in conversations, semantics, calques, and structure. This sweeping impact has not yet penetrated Arabic morphology. This Arabic in the State of Israel has been called >ar>ibiyya / >arbå-;-niyya />irbiyya ´-or->arvrit, me˓-;-.
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ابن أبي أصيبعة ١-;-٩-;-٦-;-٥-;-. عيون الأنباء في طبقات الأطباء. بيروت: مكتبة الحياة.
أبو جابر، إبراهيم ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٩-;-. مقدمة في كتاب اللغة العربية في الداخل الفلسطيني بين التمكين والارتقاء. أم الفحم، مركز الدراسات المعاصرة.
أبو حنا، حنا ١-;-٩-;-٧-;-٧-;-. من مشاكل التعليم في الوسط العربي. الناصرة.
أبو حنا، حنا وماجد الحاج (محرران) ١-;-٩-;-٨-;-٤-;-. التعليم العربي في إسرائيل، قضايا ومطالب. الناصرة.
أبو عصبة، خالد ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٦-;-. جهاز التعليم في إسرائيل: البنية، المضامين، التيارات وأساليب العمل. رام الله: مدار المركز الفلسطيني للدراسات الإسرائيلية.
أمارة، محمد ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٦-;-. العبرية وإسقاطاتها على المجتمع العربي الفلسطيني في إسرائيل. طمرة: ابن خلدون.
أمارة، محمد، ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٧-;-. العربية في ظل هيمنة العبرية في: إياد برغوثي (محرر)، كتاب الثقافة، الهوية والرؤيا. وقائع مؤتمر الثقافة الفلسطينية في الداخل - ستون عاما على التحدي والانتماء ، الواقع والرؤيا. عكا، ٦-;-٧-;--٨-;-١-;-.
أمارة، محمد ٢-;-٠-;-١-;-٠-;-. اللغة العربية في إسرائيل، سياقات وتحديات. الأردن، ط. ١-;-: دار الهدى ودراسات دار الفكر.
أمارة، محمد ٢-;-٠-;-١-;-٣-;-، نحو بناء تربية لغوية عربية شمولية. الكلية الأكاديمية بيت بيرل: المعهد الأكاديمي العربي للتريبة الينبوع/مركز أبحاث اللغة، التربية والثقافة في المجتمع العربي في إسرائيل.
البازعي، سعد ١-;-٩-;-٨-;-٨-;-. المناهج الإسرائيلية في سياق التشويه الغربي. سلسلة كتاب روناء الرياض.
بشارة، عزمي ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٠-;-. نواجه خطر أسرلة متسارعة. مجلة الدراسات الفلسطينية ، العدد ٤-;-١-;- (شتاء)، ٣-;-١-;-–٦-;-٢-;-.
بشارة٢-;-، عزمي ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٠-;-. العرب في إسرائيل رؤية من الداخل. ط. ٢-;-، بيروت: مركز دراسات الوحدة العربية.
بشير، نبيه ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٤-;-. حول تهويد المكان. حيفا: مدى الكرمل.
بلاك ايان وبني موريس ١-;-٩-;-٩-;-٨-;-. الحروب السرية للاستخبارات الإسرائيلية. ترجمة العقيد الركن الياس فرحات. بيروت: دار الحرف العربي.
جبران، سليمان ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٩-;-. على هامش التجديد والتقييد في اللغة العريبة المعاصرة. حيفا.
الحصري، ساطع ١-;-٩-;-٥-;-٩-;-. ما هي القومية؟ أبحاث ودراسات على ضوء الأحداث والنظريات. بيروت: مركز دراسات الوحدة العربية.
حيدر، عزيز ١-;-٩-;-٩-;-٣-;-. العرب في إسرائيل والتعليم العالي، مجلة الدراسات الفلسطينية، مؤسسة الدراسات الفلسطينية، بيروت، العدد ١-;-٥-;-.
حيدر، عزيز ١-;-٩-;-٩-;-٧-;-. التربية والتعليم، من كتاب: دليل إسرائيل العام، تحرير صبري جريس وأحمد خليفة، مؤسسة الدراسات الفلسطينية، بيروت، الطبعة الثالثة.
خوري، يوسف قزمة ١-;-٩-;-٩-;-١-;-. نجاح الأمة العربية في لغتها الأصلبة. بيروت.
الدنان، عبد الله ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٨-;-. التيسير في قواعد اللغة العربية. ط. ١-;-، دمشق: دار البشائر.
ديب، فرج الله صالح ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-١-;-. معجم معاني وأصول وأسماء المدن والقرى الفلسطينية. بيروت: دار الحمراء.
الرفاعي، جمال ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٧-;-. أزمة اللغة العربية في إسرائيل-مؤثرات عبرية في لغة الصحافة الفلسطينية في إسرائيل. مقاربات في اللغة والأدب (٢-;-) اللغة العربية والهوية: الرياض: منشورات جمعية اللهجات والتراث الشعبي بجامعة الملك سعود. على الشبكة العنكبوتية ١-;-٩-;-٩-;--٢-;-٣-;-٤-;-.
سرية، صالح عبد الله ١-;-٩-;-٧-;-٣-;-. تعليم العرب في إسرائيل، منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية. بيروت: مركز الأبحاث.
عرّاف شكري ١-;-٩-;-٩-;-٢-;-. المواقع الفلسطينية بين عهدين/خريطتين. كفر قرع: مطبعة الشرق العربية.
غنادري، سميح ١-;-٩-;-٨-;-٧-;-. الجماهير العربية في إسرائيل – بانوراما الاضطهاد والتمييز القوميين. الناصرة: مطبعة الاتحاد التعاونية.
عبد الحي، محمد ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٥-;-. الظاهرة اللغوية: الأصل والتطور والمستقبل. أبو ظبي: المركز الثقافي الإعلامي.
سويطي، حسين، ”إحمونا من هذا التلوث اللغوي“. الصنارة، ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٩-;-/٩-;-/١-;-٨-;-
شحادة، حسيب ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٥-;-. نظرة على مجمع اللغة العربية في إسرائيل، فصل المقال ، ١-;-٥-;- أبريل ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٥-;-، ص. ٢-;-٤-;- وانظر الشبكة العنكبوتية.
القاضي، وائل ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٣-;-. التعليم في إسرائيل. نابلس: جامعة النجاح الوطنية.
كيال، محمود ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٩-;-. تدخل اللغة العبرية باللغة العربية المكتوبة في إسرائيل منذ ١-;-٩-;-٤-;-٨-;- وحتى يومنا هذا. جامعة تل أبيب.
كيوان، سهيل. لو كانت الأسماء بمصاري. صحيفة كل العرب ٩-;- حزيران ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٥-;-.
مرعي، عبد الرحمن ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٢-;-. تأثير العبرية على اللغة العربية. الرسالة، ١-;-١-;--١-;-٢-;-، ١-;-٢-;-٩-;--١-;-٥-;-٦-;-.
مرعي، عبد الرحمن ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٦-;-. عبرنة أسماء البلدات والمواقع الفلسطينية: انعكاس وامتداد للصراع الإسرائيلي الفلسطيني. طمرة.
نخلة، خليل وآخرون (إعداد) ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٨-;-. مستقبل الأقلية الفلسطينية في إسرائيل. مدار - المركز الفلسطيني للدراسات الإسرائيلية.
א-;-ל-;-ח-;-א-;-ג-;-‘, מ-;-א-;-ג-;-‘ד-;- 1996. ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ך-;- ב-;-ק-;-ר-;-ב-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ם-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;- – ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ט-;-ה-;- ו-;-ש-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-י-;- ח-;-ב-;-ר-;-ת-;-י-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: ה-;-א-;-ו-;-נ-;-י-;-ב-;-ר-;-ס-;-י-;-ט-;-ה-;- ה-;-ע-;-ב-;-ר-;-י-;-ת-;-, מ-;-א-;-ג-;-נ-;-ס-;-.
א-;-מ-;-א-;-ר-;-ה-;-, מ-;-ו-;-ח-;-מ-;-ד-;- 2002. ה-;-ע-;-ב-;-ר-;-י-;-ת-;- ב-;-ק-;-ר-;-ב-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ם-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-: ה-;-י-;-ב-;-ט-;-י-;-ם-;- ס-;-ו-;-צ-;-י-;-ו-;-ל-;-י-;-נ-;-ג-;-ו-;-ו-;-י-;-ס-;-ט-;-י-;-ם-;-. ת-;-ע-;-ו-;-ד-;-ה-;- 18, 85–105.
א-;-מ-;-א-;-ר-;-ה-;-, מ-;-ו-;-ח-;-מ-;-ד-;- 2006. ה-;-ח-;-י-;-ו-;-נ-;-י-;-ו-;-ת-;- ש-;-ל-;- ה-;-ש-;-פ-;-ה-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;- מ-;-נ-;-ק-;-ו-;-ד-;-ת-;- ה-;-ש-;-ק-;-פ-;-ה-;- ס-;-ו-;-צ-;-י-;-ו-;-ל-;-י-;-נ-;-ג-;-ו-;-ו-;-י-;-ס-;-ט-;-י-;-ת-;-. ה-;-י-;-ר-;-ח-;-ו-;-ן-;- ה-;-א-;-ל-;-ק-;-ט-;-ר-;-ו-;-נ-;-י-;- ש-;-ל-;- ע-;-ד-;-א-;-ל-;-ה-;-, ג-;-ל-;-י-;-ו-;-ן-;- 29, א-;-ו-;-ק-;-ט-;-ו-;-ב-;-ר-;-.
א-;-נ-;-צ-;-י-;-ק-;-ל-;-ו-;-פ-;-ד-;-י-;-ה-;- ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-כ-;-י-;-ת-;- 1968. ד-;-ר-;-כ-;-י-;- ה-;-ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ך-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: מ-;-ו-;-ס-;-ד-;- ב-;-י-;-א-;-ל-;-י-;-ק-;-.
ב-;-נ-;-ז-;-י-;-מ-;-ן-;-, ע-;-ו-;-ז-;-י-;- ו-;-מ-;-נ-;-צ-;-ו-;-ר-;- ע-;-ט-;-א-;-ל-;-ל-;-ה-;- 1991. ד-;-י-;-י-;-ר-;-י-;- מ-;-ש-;-נ-;-ה-;- – ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-י-;- י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-, מ-;-ע-;-מ-;-ד-;-ם-;- ו-;-ה-;-מ-;-ד-;-י-;-נ-;-י-;-ו-;-ת-;- כ-;-ל-;-פ-;-י-;-ה-;-ם-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: כ-;-ת-;-ר-;-.
ג-;-ו-;-י-;-י-;-ט-;-י-;-ן-;-, ד-;-ב-;- ש-;-ל-;-מ-;-ה-;- 1961. ע-;-ל-;- ה-;-ו-;-ר-;-א-;-ת-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;-, ב-;-ת-;-ו-;-ך-;-: י-;-ע-;-ק-;-ב-;- ל-;-נ-;-ד-;-א-;-ו-;- (ע-;-ו-;-ר-;-ך-;-), ה-;-ו-;-ר-;-א-;-ת-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- כ-;-ל-;-ש-;-ו-;-ן-;- ז-;-ר-;-ה-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: 11–34.
ד-;-ו-;-ר-;-ו-;-ן-;-‏, ‬-;-ד-;-ו-;-ד-;- 1971. ‬-;-ה-;-ע-;-ב-;-ר-;-י-;-ת-;- ש-;-ל-;- ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-י-;- י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-‏. ‬-;-ע-;-ב-;-ו-;-ד-;-ת-;- ג-;-מ-;-ר-;- ל-;-ת-;-ו-;-א-;-ר-;- מ-;-ו-;-ס-;-מ-;-ך-;-. ‬-;-א-;-ו-;-נ-;-י-;-ב-;-ר-;-ס-;-י-;-ט-;-ת-;- ת-;-ל-;--א-;-ב-;-י-;-ב-;-‏.
ה-;-נ-;-ש-;-ק-;-ה-;-, י-;-ה-;-ו-;-ד-;-י-;-ת-;- 2012. א-;-ו-;-צ-;-ר-;- ה-;-מ-;-י-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;- ה-;-ע-;-ב-;-ר-;-י-;- ב-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- ה-;-מ-;-ד-;-ו-;-ב-;-ר-;-ת-;- ש-;-ל-;- י-;-ה-;-ו-;-ד-;-י-;- ת-;-ו-;-נ-;-י-;-ס-;-י-;-ה-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: מ-;-ו-;-ס-;-ד-;- ב-;-י-;-א-;-ל-;-י-;-ק-;-.
י-;-ו-;-נ-;-א-;-י-;-, י-;-‘ 1992. ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- ב-;-ב-;-ת-;-י-;- ס-;-פ-;-ר-;- ע-;-ב-;-ר-;-י-;-י-;-ם-;- – ס-;-ד-;-ר-;-ת-;- ת-;-ע-;-ו-;-ד-;-ה-;-, ע-;-נ-;-ף-;- ת-;-ו-;-ל-;-ד-;-ו-;-ת-;- ה-;-ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ך-;- ו-;-ה-;-ת-;-ר-;-ב-;-ו-;-ת-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: מ-;-ש-;-ר-;-ד-;- ה-;-ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ך-;- ו-;-ה-;-ת-;-ר-;-ב-;-ו-;-ת-;-.
ח-;-י-;-ד-;-ר-;-, ע-;-ז-;-י-;-ז-;- (ע-;-ו-;-ר-;-ך-;-) 2005. ס-;-פ-;-ר-;- ה-;-ח-;-ב-;-ר-;-ה-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-: א-;-ו-;-כ-;-ל-;-ו-;-ס-;-י-;-ה-;-, ח-;-ב-;-ר-;-ה-;-, כ-;-ל-;-כ-;-ל-;-ה-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: ה-;-ו-;-צ-;-א-;-ת-;- ה-;-ק-;-י-;-ב-;-ו-;-ץ-;- ה-;-מ-;-א-;-ו-;-ח-;-ד-;- ו-;-מ-;-כ-;-ו-;-ן-;- ו-;-ן-;- ל-;-י-;-ר-;-.
ל-;-נ-;-ד-;-א-;-ו-;-, י-;-ע-;-ק-;-ב-;- מ-;-‘ 1993. ה-;-מ-;-י-;-ע-;-ו-;-ט-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-: ה-;-י-;-ב-;-ט-;-י-;-ם-;- פ-;-ו-;-ל-;-י-;-ט-;-י-;-י-;-ם-;- 1967–1991. ת-;-ל-;- א-;-ב-;-י-;-ב-;- : ע-;-ם-;- ע-;-ו-;-ב-;-ד-;-.
ס-;-ב-;-ן-;-, א-;-. 2000. ה-;-מ-;-ע-;-מ-;-ד-;- ה-;-מ-;-ש-;-פ-;-ט-;-י-;- ש-;-ל-;- ה-;-מ-;-י-;-ע-;-ו-;-ט-;-י-;-ם-;- ב-;-מ-;-ד-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ת-;- ד-;-מ-;-ו-;-ק-;-ר-;-ט-;-י-;-ו-;-ת-;- ש-;-ס-;-ו-;-ע-;-ו-;-ת-;-. ה-;-מ-;-י-;-ע-;-ו-;-ט-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;- ו-;-ה-;-מ-;-י-;-ע-;-ו-;-ט-;- ד-;-ו-;-ב-;-ר-;- ה-;-צ-;-ר-;-פ-;-ת-;-י-;-ת-;- ב-;-ק-;-נ-;-ד-;-ה-;-. ח-;-י-;-ב-;-ו-;-ר-;- ל-;-ש-;-ם-;- ק-;-ב-;-ל-;-ת-;- ה-;-ת-;-ו-;-א-;-ר-;- ד-;-ו-;-ק-;-ט-;-ו-;-ר-;- ב-;-מ-;-ש-;-פ-;-ט-;-י-;-ם-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: ה-;-א-;-ו-;-נ-;-ו-;-ב-;-ר-;-ס-;-י-;-ט-;-ה-;- ה-;-ע-;-ב-;-ר-;-י-;-ת-;-.
ס-;-ו-;-א-;-ן-;-, ד-;-‘, ו-;-ע-;-‘ ד-;-ב-;-י-;- 2006. “ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- – ל-;-מ-;-ה-;- מ-;-ה-;-?: ע-;-מ-;-ד-;-ו-;-ת-;- ת-;-ל-;-מ-;-י-;-ד-;-י-;-ם-;- כ-;-ל-;-פ-;-י-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- ו-;-נ-;-כ-;-ו-;-נ-;-ת-;-ם-;- ל-;-ל-;-מ-;-ו-;-ד-;- א-;-ת-;- ה-;-ש-;-פ-;-ה-;-’’. ה-;-ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ך-;- ו-;-ס-;-ב-;-י-;-ב-;-ו-;-: ש-;-נ-;-ת-;-ו-;-ן-;- ס-;-מ-;-י-;-נ-;-ר-;- ה-;-ק-;-י-;-ב-;-ו-;-צ-;-י-;-ם-;- 28: 193–206.
ס-;-פ-;-ו-;-ל-;-ס-;-ק-;-י-;-1, ב-;-ר-;-נ-;-ר-;-ד-;-, א-;-י-;-ל-;-נ-;-ה-;- ש-;-ו-;-ה-;-מ-;-י-;- ו-;-ע-;-ב-;-ד-;-א-;-ל-;- ר-;-ח-;-מ-;-ן-;- מ-;-ר-;-ע-;-י-;- 1997. ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ך-;- ל-;-ש-;-ו-;-נ-;-י-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-. פ-;-ר-;-ו-;-פ-;-י-;-ל-;- ל-;-ה-;-ו-;-ר-;-א-;-ת-;- ע-;-ב-;-ר-;-י-;-ת-;- ל-;-ד-;-ו-;-ב-;-ר-;-י-;- ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;-. ר-;-מ-;-ת-;- ג-;-ן-;-.
ס-;-פ-;-ו-;-ל-;-ס-;-ק-;-י-;-2, ב-;-ר-;-נ-;-ר-;-ד-;-, א-;-י-;-ל-;-נ-;-ה-;- ש-;-ו-;-ה-;-מ-;-י-;- ו-;-ע-;-ב-;-ד-;-א-;-ל-;- ר-;-ח-;-מ-;-ן-;- מ-;-ר-;-ע-;-י-;- 1997. ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ך-;- ל-;-ש-;-ו-;-נ-;-י-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-. פ-;-ר-;-ו-;-פ-;-י-;-ל-;- ל-;-ה-;-ו-;-ר-;-א-;-ת-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- כ-;-ש-;-פ-;-ת-;- א-;-ם-;-. ר-;-מ-;-ת-;- ג-;-ן-;-.
ק-;-ד-;-מ-;-ן-;-, נ-;-ג-;-ה-;- 2008. ב-;-צ-;-ד-;-י-;- ה-;-ד-;-ר-;-ך-;- ו-;-ב-;-ש-;-ו-;-ל-;-י-;- ה-;-ת-;-ו-;-ד-;-ע-;-ה-;- – ד-;-ח-;-י-;-ק-;-ת-;- ה-;-כ-;-פ-;-ר-;-י-;-ם-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-י-;-ם-;- ש-;-ה-;-ת-;-ר-;-ו-;-ק-;-נ-;-ו-;- ב-;-–1948 מ-;-ה-;-ש-;-י-;-ח-;- ה-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-י-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: ס-;-פ-;-ר-;-י-;- נ-;-ו-;-ב-;-מ-;-ב-;-ר-;- .
ק-;-ו-;-פ-;-ל-;-ו-;-ב-;-י-;-ץ-;-, ע-;-מ-;-נ-;-ו-;-א-;-ל-;- 1974. ה-;-ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ך-;- ב-;-מ-;-ג-;-ז-;-ר-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-, ע-;-ו-;-ב-;-ד-;-ו-;-ת-;- ו-;-ב-;-ע-;-י-;-ו-;-ת-;-. ב-;-ת-;-ו-;-ך-;-: א-;-. א-;-ו-;-ר-;-מ-;-י-;-א-;-ן-;- (ע-;-ו-;-ר-;-ך-;-), ה-;-ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-ך-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: 323–334.
ר-;-ו-;-ז-;-נ-;-ט-;-ל-;-, ר-;-ו-;-ב-;-י-;-ק-;- 2005, מ-;-ה-;-ד-;-ו-;-ר-;-ה-;- ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ע-;-י-;-ת-;- 2006. מ-;-י-;-ל-;-ו-;-ן-;- ה-;-ס-;-ל-;-נ-;-ג-;- ה-;-מ-;-ק-;-י-;-ף-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: כ-;-ת-;-ר-;-.
ר-;-ו-;-ז-;-נ-;-פ-;-ל-;-ד-;-, ה-;-נ-;-ר-;-י-;- 1979. ה-;-מ-;-צ-;-ב-;- ה-;-מ-;-ע-;-מ-;-ד-;-י-;- ש-;-ל-;- ה-;-מ-;-י-;-ע-;-ו-;-ט-;- ה-;-ל-;-א-;-ו-;-מ-;-י-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-. מ-;-ח-;-ב-;-ר-;-ו-;-ת-;- ל-;-מ-;-ח-;-ק-;-ר-;- ו-;-ל-;-ב-;-י-;-ק-;-ו-;-ר-;-ת-;- 3, 5–35.
ר-;-י-;-י-;-ט-;-ר-;-, י-;-צ-;-ח-;-ק-;- (ע-;-ו-;-ר-;-ך-;-) 2005. ד-;-י-;-ל-;-מ-;-ו-;-ת-;- ב-;-י-;-ח-;-ס-;-י-;- י-;-ה-;-ו-;-ד-;-י-;-ם-;-–ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ם-;- ב-;-י-;-ש-;-ר-;-א-;-ל-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: ש-;-ו-;-ק-;-ן-;-.
ש-;-ח-;-א-;-ד-;-ה-;-, ח-;-ס-;-י-;-ב-;-, 1979. מ-;-ב-;-ע-;-י-;-ו-;-ת-;-י-;-ה-;- ש-;-ל-;- ה-;-מ-;-י-;-ל-;-ו-;-נ-;-א-;-ו-;-ת-;- ה-;-ע-;-ב-;-ר-;-י-;-ת-;- ל-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- ה-;-מ-;-ד-;-ו-;-ב-;-ר-;-ת-;-. ל-;-ש-;-ו-;-נ-;-נ-;-ו-;- מ-;-‘‘ג-;-, 52–70.
ש-;-ר-;-י-;-י-;-ב-;-ו-;-ם-;-–ש-;-ב-;-ט-;-י-;-א-;-ל-;-, ש-;-ל-;-ו-;-מ-;-י-;-ת-;- 2005. ה-;-ת-;-ח-;-ד-;-ש-;-ו-;-ת-;- ה-;-ל-;-ש-;-ו-;-ן-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- ב-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ח-;-ו-;-ת-;- ה-;-ר-;-ע-;-י-;-ו-;-ן-;- ה-;-ל-;-א-;-ו-;-מ-;-י-;- ב-;-מ-;-צ-;-ר-;-י-;-ם-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: מ-;-א-;-ג-;-נ-;-ס-;-.
ש-;-ר-;-י-;-י-;-ב-;-ו-;-ם-;-–ש-;-ב-;-ט-;-י-;-א-;-ל-;-, ש-;-ל-;-ו-;-מ-;-י-;-ת-;- 2010. ס-;-י-;-י-;-ד-;- ק-;-ש-;-ו-;-ע-;-, ג-;-ו-;-ף-;- ש-;-נ-;-י-;- י-;-ח-;-י-;-ד-;-. י-;-ר-;-ו-;-ש-;-ל-;-י-;-ם-;-: כ-;-ת-;-ר-;-.

1. See Pool 1991.
2 See عبد الحي : ٤-;-٣-;-. As to the status of Arabic in Israel, see Kretzmer 1990-;- http://www.izs.org.il/?father_id=205&catid=438-;- http://www.ahewar.org/eng/show.art.asp?aid=604-;- http://www.kas.de/israel/en/publications/22379/.
3 See Ma>oz 1968-;- Spolsky & Cooper 1991.
4. See Henkin-Roitfarb 2011: 61.
5 See Spolsky & Shohamy 1999, Ben- Rafael 1994.
6 The declaration was published in the Official Gazette, No. 1 of the 5th Iyar 5708 (14 May, 1948) and signed by David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s first prime minister, along with 41 others, including Yitzchak Ben-Zvi, Zerach Wahrhaftig, Golda Myerson, Abraham Katznelson, Bekhor Shitreet, and Moshe Shertok.
7 http://daytranslations.com/israeli_languages.aspx-;- http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=israel-;- http://www.peopleil.org/details.aspx?itemID=30082
8 Deutch 2005-;- http://cedep.academia.edu/HughLovatt/Papers/973315/Language_Policies_and_Ethno-Politics_in_Turkey_and_Israel
9 ‘‘All ordinances, official notices and official forms of the government and all official notices of local authorities and municipalities in areas to be prescribed by order of the High Commissioner, shall be published in English, Arabic and Hebrew. The three languages may be used in debates and discussions in the Legislative Council and subject to any regulations to be made from time to time, in the government offices and the law courts’’-;- see Drayton 1934: 2569-;- on Arabic education during the British mandate, see Yousuf 1956-;- on Israeli methods see البازعي ١-;-٩-;-٨-;-٨-;-.
10 See Kretzmer 1990: 165-166, Amara 2002, Amara 2002 (Hebrew), Fisherman & Fishman 1975, Harel-Shalev 2005, 2005 (Hebrew), May 2001, Pinto 2009, Saban & Amara 2002, Shohamy & Donitsa-Schmidt 1998, Tabory 1981, Talmon 1997, http://izsvideo.org/papers/bakshi2011.pdf-;- سرية ١-;-٩-;-٧-;-٣-;-، حيدر ١-;-٩-;-٩-;-٧-;-، القاضي ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٣-;-. . A. Rubinstein described the status of Arabic in Israel as “problematic’’, Rubinstein 1980: 76. It is interesting to recall that in 1948 Israel did not cancel the position of Arabic as an official language as was done with English. Arabic, as some believe, is Israel’s silent official language-;- see http://reporting-on-israel.tumblr.com/post/4518491359/arabic-israels-silent-official-language-by-jon-;- Yitzhaki 2008: 8 seq-;- 10–9, 3 :1997 ס-;-פ-;-ו-;-ל-;-ס-;-ק-;-י-;-2.
11. Yitzhaki 2008.
12 See Jeffay 2008-;- http://dugrinet.co.il/node/13029. Moshe Arens described this proposal as ‘foolish’, see http://www.haaretz.co.il/opinions/1.1566405-;- http://cafe.themarker.com/post/2425607/.
13 א-;-נ-;-צ-;-י-;-ק-;-ל-;-ו-;-פ-;-ד-;-י-;-ה-;- ח-;-י-;-נ-;-ו-;-כ-;-י-;-ת-;- 1968: 664، أمارة ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٦-;-، بشارة ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٠-;-. A clear tendency of using colloquial Arabic in Hebrew characters´-or-even Hebrew language by Israeli Arabs on the internet deserves a separate investigation.
14 This national minority is not declared in basic Israeli laws. It has numerous euphemistic designations such as the Arabs of 1948, the Arabs on the inside, Arab citizens of Israel, Arab Israelis, Israeli Arabs, Palestinian Israelis, the Arab population in Israel, Palestinian citizens of Israel, the Arab sector. For further names see Shehadeh: 1997: 49 note 2.-;- http://www.hf-fak-uib.no/smi/paj-;- http://www.smi.uib.no/paj/Shehadeh.html, 25/9/1995. On this national minority and its future vision, see Bligh 2003, Cohen 1974, Eghbarieh 1991, Israeli 2008, Landau 1993, Louer & King 2006, Pleg & Selikter 1989, Reiter & Wigoder 1992, Rekhes 1993, Smooha 1989, Smooha 2005, White 2011, ב-;-נ-;-ז-;-י-;-מ-;-ן-;- ו-;-מ-;-נ-;-צ-;-ו-;-ר-;- 1991, ר-;-י-;-י-;-ט-;-ר-;- 2005, ח-;-י-;-ד-;-ר-;- 2005, نخلة ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٨-;-. http://www. .adalah.org/newsletter/eng/dec06/tasawor-mostaqbali.pdf-;- http://www.adalah.org/heb/democratic_constitution-h-pdf.
15 Their number after the establishment of Israel in May 1948 was 156, 000-;- see Pape 2006.
16 See بشارة ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٠-;-٢-;- ، ס-;-ב-;-ן-;- 2000-;- Marcus 2007. ِAll Arabs who were inside the so-called Green Line on the 14th of July 1952 had Israeli citizenship-;- Jamal 2009: 29-38-;- Rouhana 1997-;- Rubinstein 2003.
17 See Oded 1964: 19-25.
18 ‘‘The state is Jewish, built by Jews for Jews’’. The Arabs in Israel are ‘‘outsiders-;-’’, see Peretz & Doron 1997: 276, Lustick 1980.
19 See: الحصري ١-;-٩-;-٥-;-٩-;-: ٢-;-٥-;-٢-;-
20 See, for instance, Ghanem 2001.
21 See Skaaraas 2009-;- Kerlinger 1984. Arabs in mixed cities know Hebrew better than literary Arabic-;- see ק-;-ו-;-פ-;-ל-;-ו-;-ב-;-י-;-ץ-;- 1974 : 328 -;- Monterescu et alia 2007.
22 See Daghas 1993 -;- Abu-Rabia1 1996.
23 See Abu-Rabia2: 1996: 7.
24. Peres 1971.
25 See First & Avraham 2004-;- Jamal 2009: 39-60.
26. See كيوان ٢-;-٠-;-٠-;-٥-;-.
27 Israel in figures 2008. http://www.cbs.gov.il/www/publications/isr_in_n08e.pdf-;- ‘‘The Arab Minority in Israel’’. Arab Human Rights Association. http://www.arabhra.org/factssheets/factsheet0.htm.
28 Majadele: New Arab city will bolster our sense of belonging. Haaretz 12 February 2008. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/953568.html. The plan of such a construction remained on paper.
29 Shavit 2004, Shusteff 2002 .
30 http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=3fd_1229052889, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7779087.stm
31 Burg 2008: 61. The word ע-;-ָ-;-ר-;-ָ-;-ב-;-ּ-;-ו-;-ּ-;-ש-;- meaning a derogatory nickname for an Arab is a typical example of what Burg is driving at. This word is not confrmed in the comprehensive Hebrew-Hebrew dictionary by א-;-ב-;-ן-;- ש-;-ו-;-ש-;-ן-;- 1985 but it appears in 285: 2005 ר-;-ו-;-ז-;-נ-;-ט-;-ל-;- .
32 See Gil 2003, http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=373225. Allusions to this ‘demographic threat’ can be found in the The Koenig Memorandum drafted in 1976. Its major objective was to reduce the number of Arabs in Galilee who form approximately half of the Arabs in Israel-;- http://electronicintifada.net/content/defusing-israels-demographic-bomb/5503.
33 Farrell & MacKinnon 2006.
34 See Bekerman 2005: 6. In some schools Hebrew is begun as early as the second grade. This teaching is mainly conducted on the basis of literary Arabic and grounded in the dictionary. After four years of study the Arab child acquires 2,000-2,500 Hebrew words. On teaching Hebrew to the Arab sector see 663-676 :1968 א-;-נ-;-צ-;-י-;-ק-;-ל-;-ו-;-פ-;-ד-;-י-;-ה-;-. It is worth mentioning that some years after the establishment of Israel, some Jews opposed the teaching of Hebrew to Arabs because they feared such knowledge would be used against the state’s security´-or-on the grounds that a holy language ought not be taught to goyim, that is, non-Jews. On the other hand, there were also Arabs who rejected having to learn Hebrew in Arab schools because of its possible negative influence on the Arabic language-;- ibid. p. 664. It should also be mentioned that Hebrew language teachers have to identify with the State of Israel and its values-;- ibid. p. 667-;- 6 :1997ס-;-פ-;-ו-;-ל-;-ס-;-ק-;-י-;-1. On the Hebrew of the Arabs in Israel see, for example, Shehadeh 1997, Kinberg & Talmon 1994, א-;-מ-;-א-;-ר-;-ה-;- 2002, ד-;-ו-;-ר-;-ו-;-ן-;- 1971. Teaching a foreign language at such an early age has negative influence on mastering the mother tongue, which in this case is Arabic.
35 See: http://hrw.org/reports/2001/israel2/JILPfinal-pdf-;- Kraemer 1990.
36 Cooper & Fishman 1977: 239-276-;- cf. Haaretz 30/11/2006, Bamaḥ-;-ane 6/7/1994.
37 See Halprin 2006: 481-489, بلاك ١-;-٩-;-٩-;-٨-;-، ١-;-٧-;--٢-;-٢-;-, י-;-ו-;-נ-;-א-;-י-;-: 1992: 8–9. On the other hand, there were a few voices in support of the idea of teaching Arabic to Jews, such as the orientalist, Shlomo Dov Goitein (1900-1985), for several reasons. The study of Arabic is part of Zionism, part of the return to the Hebrew language and to the Semitic Orient, where Arabic is spoken. In addition he hoped that future Jewish generations would feel at home in the Middle East-;- see 13 :ג-;-ו-;-י-;-י-;-ט-;-י-;-ן-;- 1961, Kraemer 1990: 59-60. A similar approach, namely, learning Hebrew in order to know the Zionist enemies being carried out in several schools in the Gaza Strip-;- See http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/mobile/middleeast/2013/02/130222_hebrew_gaza_school.shtml.
38. See Gardner & Lambert 1972.
39 See י-;-ו-;-נ-;-א-;-י-;- 1992-;- Kraemer 1990, Brosh & Ben-Rafael 1991. In the 1990s a unit named (ש-;-י-;-פ-;-‘‘‘ע-;-ת-;- = ש-;-י-;-פ-;-ו-;-ר-;- ו-;-פ-;-י-;-ת-;-ו-;-ח-;- ה-;-ש-;-פ-;-ה-;- ה-;-ע-;-ר-;-ב-;-י-;-ת-;- ו-;-ת-;-ר-;-ב-;-ו-;-ת-;-ה-;-) for promoting the teaching of the Arabic language and culture was established by the Ministry of Education and IDF. .
40 See Yitzhaki 2008: 94-148, Amara & Mar˓-;-

Modern Discussion