2009 / 7 / 10
Generally, the term “method” in its pedagogical meaning refers to “an over all plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. A method is procedural”
In fact there are plenty of methodologies in teaching English as a foreign language literature; each approach has a particular practical method. Besides, in preparing this paper we have met many teachers in different private schools in Agadir and we have attended their lessons in English classes in which they show high quality teaching and effective competence in English courses instruction and considerable experience in class management. Unfortunately we have discovered according to questionnaires that some of these teachers can not defend their methods theoretically because of the lack of a theoretical data about this issue, this fact motivate us to investigate this question and present one of the most strategies in EFL teaching among the world.
This highly considerable strategy is called E.S.A which is developed by Jermy Harmer who is one of the most important pedagogists among the world. Harmer wrote many books and researches which becomes one of the most important contributions in the improvement of this field.
a) What is E.S.A?
Every lesson contains different stages. Lessons can focus on grammar, vocabulary, reading or writing. They may consist of listening or speaking. These different courses and subjects can be presented as an introducing of new language items or as a revision of a past lesson. Accordingly, the teacher is asked to indicate the aims to be achieved at the end of a particular lesson.
In other hand, students should be motivated and interested in a language lesson and enjoy what they are studying to make progress and learn faster. This significant aim can not be achieved without clear methodology and careful planning. The E.S.A answers this question which refers to:
ENGAGE STUDY ACTIVATE
These three elements should be present in each successful instruction and learning.
ü E = Engage:
It is important to engage students, this means getting students interested in the subject in the class, in the language point and hopefully enjoying what they are doing. But why is this important? After all, you may feel that students come to school to learn not to be entertained!
“If students are engaged, if they are genuinely involved in what is going on, the chances are that they are going to learn are awful lot better because they are not just doing what they have to do because they are in school”.
Engaging student in the teaching- learning process of each lesson is important for effective learning. Learners must not be a controller of the class but its basic profession is to this idea by saying “you can not teach people anything but you can help them only to discover things in themselves”
ü S = Study:
In any lesson, students usually need something to study. In an English teaching lesson there needs to be some language focus for the class. Students need to be introduced systemically to the way that English is put together. The study element of a lesson could focus on any aspect of language, such a grammar or vocabulary and pronunciation. A study stage does not have to be now language input; it could also cover revision and extension of previously taught material.
Simply telling students about the language is not usually to help them to learn it. In an activate stage the students are given tasks, normally writing or speaking activities which students to use only the language they are studying that day, but also other language that they are learnt.
There are some reasons why it is important to let students have his kind of practice:
· - It gives students the chance to rehearse English, as if they were doing it in the real world but is the style environment of the classroom.
· - Some theories of language learning suggest that by giving students this kind of practise. It helps them to “switch” language they have been studying, into language which they can use instinctively without having to think about it.
· - These kinds of activities are often fun for students. As we have mentioned before, providing an enjoyable classroom experience for students helps the learning process.
· - This kind of activity, because it does not restrict students, helps the teacher to assess how well the class is progressing.
· - providing suitable tasks which learners can achieve using lots of different language has a positive motivational effect on students motivated students tend to learn better.
E.S.A, engage, study and activate are three important elements for each effective lesson, they give the teacher the ability to organize the content of his courses, and present his lesson logically to learners. Motivation comes at the first stage (Engage) then studying (study) of precise examples and rules of a particular linguistic phenomenon (verb to be for example). Then assessment comes at the end (activate) in which students show their understanding of the content whereas, the teacher examines.
 Jermy Harmer. How to teach English. London