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Iraq After 2003 and The Future of Quota System

Dr. Ahmed Alhudhud
2020 / 5 / 5

Nineteen days have defined the fate of Iraq and its people, over the past seventeen years, to the time, and indefinitely. Between 20 March and 9 April 2003, the date of the first American raid on Iraq, and the date of the fall of Baghdad, and with it the regime of the late President, Saddam Hussein.
"Iraq has weapons of mass destruction," the broad title of the US invasion, and an argument put forward by former US President George W. Bush, to move outside the framework of the UN Security Council.
In April 2005, after dozens of testimonies and interrogations by congressional committees and other international committees, the summary of the Bush-appointed commission report came as follows: “We conclude that the intelligence community was completely wrong in almost all of its estimates that preceded The war on Iraqi weapons of mass destruction. "
One day before the first American raid on Iraq, specifically on March 19, Bush addressed a letter to the American people, opening it by saying: "At this hour, American and coalition forces began the initial stages of military operations to disarm Iraq, to liberate its people, and to protect the world from danger. Staring bleak. "
He concluded: "The dangers threatening our country and the world will be overcome, and we will pass these times of danger, and we will continue to make peace."
There is no danger that has passed, and there is no peace resolved--;-- a quick look at the current state of Iraq says.
From the day of the fall of Baghdad, until Saddam was arrested and, later, his execution in late 2006, a great state of chaos spread in Iraq, from one extreme to the other, and a sectarian war broke out that changed the face of Baghdad and the society that used to be irreparably pluralistic.
Kidnappings, killings, and forced displacement of civilians have also been widespread by Sunni fighters and Shiite factions, and religious minorities have been threatened enough to leave their members collectively either to the north´-or-out of the country.
The policy of the United States of America in Iraq adopted the sectarian quota method that constituted the Governing Council on the basis of which it turned into a kind of recognition of diversity into a legal framework for division, and this political process was accompanied by the exploitation of the fact that sectarian, sectarian and national identity is an engine for political mobilization by the elites that are looking On a new legitimacy and --convert--ing identity into strategies for financial gain, because one s recognition of being Iraqi does not mean that it will be less Arab´-or-Kurdish as much as it becomes more Iraqi, and that it will lose its sub-affiliation as much as it falls within the broader identity range and is assured of its integration within the horizon Ha.
What the Iraqis suffer from the state building crisis and its institutions holds observers that the quota system has a responsibility to spread financial and administrative corruption in Iraq after the year 2003 and the quota system means that the winning blocs and parties in the parliamentary elections share government positions, and under this quota also the presidency of the Republic is Kurdish, and the prime minister is Shiite, The presidency of Parliament will be among the share of Sunnis, and this has been highlighted by the phenomenon of corruption.
The failure of the political system to impose security´-or-even the law on all political actors, and stability of conditions requires the elimination of disintegrating conflicts and the drafting of a consensual constitution that establishes the rule of law by adopting decisive policies towards the files of armed militias and militant religious groups.
Likewise, each block was keen to defend its interests and try to exclude and delay every legislation that is not commensurate with its aspirations and interests, including the approval of the Parliament 2009, three laws at once, suspending each of them on the approval of the other, namely: the budget law that allocated 17% to the provinces of the Kurdistan region instead of its actual share 13%, and the general amnesty law submitted by the former deputy Tareq Al-Hashemi, and the third law for irregular governorate councils in the region No. 21 of 2008.
Then came the 2010 elections, and the results resulted in a partial victory for the Iraqi list led by Iyad Allawi, by obtaining 91 seats, which made it the largest list in the House of Representatives, and the State of Law coalition led by Nuri al-Maliki ranked second with 89 seats, as it was a good result but it did not It alone qualifies him to form a new government.
After nearly 8 months after the elections, he was able to win the position of Prime Minister for a new presidential term by agreeing at that time to solve the outstanding problems, including the establishment of the National Council for Strategic Policies, to be entrusted to the presidency of the President of the Iraqi List, Iyad Allawi, and was formally mandated to form the government on November 25 / November 2010, a day before the end of the constitutional deadline granted to President Jalal Talabani to assign to the Prime Minister, and this delay was considered the official assignment in order to give him the largest possible time to negotiate the formation of the government and the distribution of ministerial positions within a period of thirty days, The Council of Ministers obtained confidence from the House of Representatives on December 21, 2010, following the general elections in May, and the names of thirty-five ministers were approved, along with ministries with temporary ministers, pending the agreement of permanent ministers.
And after 2012, it started witnessing a stage of demonstrations taking the Sunni component to the streets in Anbar and demanding the release of detainees and the abolition of article four terrorism. These demonstrations took place in squares called (sit-in squares), which ended in the entry of armed groups which were called (ISIS) and this affected the scene At the same time, the goal of the armed groups was to bring down the state, the constitution, and the government, and because of their ability to control Mosul and part of Anbar, US intelligence has now pushed to administer, supervise, train, and coordinate military institutions through the US military according to an agreement The two countries in 2008, which means that the security and military forces did not go out of American control and supervision, as well as the announcement of Mr. Sistani (Jihad Al-Kafai) .
In light of the worsening of the Iraqi situation as a result of the entry of ISIS and the result of popular discontent over the results of the wrong policies, a demonstration was launched 2015 AD denouncing political and administrative corruption, deterioration of the economic and social situation, widespread poverty and unemployment, opposition to the permanent Iraqi constitution and demanding reform, and Prime Minister Mr. Haider al-Abadi tried to confront the obstacles of the legacy Left by successive governments after 2003 AD, and in response to the demands of the demonstrators, he issued several reforms. In the context of that, Speaker of Parliament Salim al-Jabouri affirmed the implementation of general amnesty laws, the National Guard, accountability and justice contribute to enhancing confidence between the constituents. T, stressing that the United Nations should have a role in relief for the displaced.
The demonstrations continued with a decrease in their frequency even after the formation of the new government in 2018, in which Mr. Adel Abdul-Mahdi became prime minister, as this period witnessed a return to back regarding the state’s control over the country s affairs, as the armed forces were released outside the state to tamper with the joints The state terrorized the security people with the accompanying imposition of corrupt elements in all joints of the state. Also, external interference by neighboring countries has become very clear, even in the smallest parts of the Iraqi state. As soon as a year had passed since the government was mandated until the Iraqi people returned to exploding again in a massive revolution, the beginning of the demonstrations in October was not the spark of the revolution that moved from Baghdad to all the provinces. The demands this time were not-limit-ed to the material and administrative aspects and fighting the rampant corruption. Rather, the citizens became demanding the return of the homeland, as the slogan "We want a homeland" became the distinguishing mark behind the claims.
The protests continued, and students and schools went on their path, white streets swept all the streets of the capital and southern governorates, a white stream shouting in love for Iraq and supporting the demands of the demonstrators, everyone went out, male and female, and the teachers --union-- announced a strike on the official working hours in all parts of the country, until The demands of the masses are implemented, the Prime Minister stated that children and adolescents should not be fed into the demonstrations, forgetting that they did not study in schools´-or-universities worthy of them, and so the protests continued, and everyone has joined forces with the demonstrators between providing food and first aid from the citizens, continuously.

The demonstrations are still continuing to this moment, and the demands are crystal clear in the fourth day, the government’s departure, the dissolution of Parliament, the censorship of militias, the corrupt Islamic parties in both its Sunni and Shi’ite sides, curtailing the role of religious references, investigating corrupt files, referring them to the judiciary, and improving the lives of citizens , And preserve the dignity of the Iraqi person. Iraqis have written in all their colors the most magnificent images of steadfastness and steadfastness in the face of the corrupt government, and they all look forward to the free spring of Iraq, the spring of love, peace and freedom.
In conclusion, the state of the components, despite the presence of indications of that and the idea of dividing Iraq, was the most effective role, the external had the largest role in political instability and security, all of which affected the process of building the state of citizenship and what Iraq faced from the control of armed groups after 2012 and until now the impact of this on work The political system and its effectiveness and at the same time its impact on society and its societal components by displacing it from its regions and pushing some to migrate out of Iraq has a great impact on the social fabric and the most prominent regional and sectarian, which may strengthen the tendency of division and disassociation, because Iraq needs the presence of political forces that believe in the origin The real one supports the idea of Iraqi citizenship and the establishment of the state of citizenship and the encouragement of popular participation and the establishment of social institutions and bodies on the basis of competence and experience and not ethnicity and religion, and the United States of America that supports the idea of partition and raises recurring crises for the issue of applying partition on the basis of components in order to weaken Iraq and make it torn, What Iraq suffers from a war of attrition in the face of the Takfiri organizations and the bloody attitudes it witnesses and the killing of many of the sons of Iraq and the Iraqi army, contributed to supporting the incompatible interests and led the citizens because of their pain and their pain that they become more possessed AR division, as well as in the event of continued deterioration, the project of partition and the establishment of a state of components is the closest to the Iraqi situation.

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