Salim Mare Salim
2020 / 2 / 26
Ethics is a product of philosophy
First - the philosophy of ethics
We will not say about philosophy that it is a love of wisdom,´-or-a search for existence with what exists
´-or-to identify the reason for the justified thing,´-or-to simplify the issue to its primary elements
If this is true, there is another meaning for philosophy stemming from its approach, which is that
It is a treatment of important and fundamental issues in a person s life, but rather they are looking at oneself
Man and his relationship to others and to God and existence.
So the philosophy is to address the fundamental issues that preoccupied humanity, looking for
Establishing a relationship between a person and everything in existence around him, a relationship from which all
Surprisingness, confusion,´-or-confusion in light of an approach based on logical research and analysis -
Just to get to the truth.
So philosophy is to create a systematic global relationship between (God, man and existence) and an attempt -
Unveiling any ambiguity´-or-doubt about this relationship, and perhaps this relationship is the seed
The first that grew in the land of philosophy, to be after that a reason for granting intellectual property
To own that land for philosophy, and to give it permission to build an integrated intellectual treatment edifice
All issues arising out of the dialectical cosmic relationship (God, human existence) - -
Therefore, the judgment on the verbs issued by the parties to this relationship and their insight and sounding
Being arrogant and contributing to setting standards and behavioral foundations according to which these actions are
Philosophy is undoubtedly within reach, because a relationship cannot bear fruit without
The existence of a system that defines its path in an endeavor to develop this dialectical relationship for the better
Indeed, philosophy today is to laugh at the fullness of her cheeks, not only because she is the mother of science but
also because -
It takes absolute precedence over setting the first brick to frame human behavior and put it on
As long as people are attracted by both tendencies (good and bad), this behavior is subject to deviation from
It must be criteria that define the behavior (good´-or-bad). These standards are ethics
II- Ethics of philosophy -
The word philosophy is one of the most resonant words that always carries a great meaning. He says
Zaki Najib Mahmoud, a well-known Arab thinker, "They love using it, but they are
They hate standing there, as if they like to use it as bold and loose and hate
Its content is guaranteed and meaning.
What do you hear most often in their conversations such as, philosophical in life, but you ask them that
They define its intended meaning, so that they differentiate in these terms that we have written between life
) And its philosophy, then they annoy you, ”(1)
If philosophy is the love of wisdom, then the speaker intended his phrase is my wisdom
In life, he of course does not mean one wisdom but rather a set of values -;---;-----;----;---;-----;---and principles
The concepts through which he sees his personality, and if someone mentioned to you one wisdom and sees it
It is his philosophy in life, as if he says my philosophy is "I fear the evil of the one who did good to him" for example, because the value that this wisdom carries cannot be separate from the rest of the values, it is
It indicates that not all human beings are good people, and it indicates the need for vigilance, intelligence and alertness
It indicates intelligence, and while we know that not every intelligent person is a good person, but that intelligence is here
Coupled with goodness.
Thus, the use of the word philosophy in its academic sense and philosophy in our life expressions is not
Separated from each other, as the first refers to the love of wisdom and the search for it, and indicates
Second to work on.
Thirdly, the state of philosophical ethics -
1- The Republic of Plato (348 428 BC) M
At the beginning of his book, Plato introduces the idea of -;---;-----;----;---;-----;---justice, how to build a fair state, and loved individuals
Justice, in which it deals with a specific definition of a just man, who is wise and righteous, and that
The aggressor is the villain and the ignorant, and the state should teach individuals the love of justice, and that
Ethics is moderation in behavior, and is similar to parts of the state with parts of the human being
Where the state is divided into (the ruling class, the army class, the industrialists and workers class) -
And divides the human into
The head has the mind and its virtue is wisdom.
The heart has passion and its courageous virtue.
And the abdomen and the lusts and its virtue is moderation.
A just country is one in which everyone submits an act of a nature that is ruling and governing
The soldier protects, the worker works, and so the idea of -;---;-----;----;---;-----;---justice in the human soul is formed,
The mind controls cravings and emotions, helping the mind to act as anger against frigidity
And that there is a status between them is dreaming and moderation, and Plato asks, Are we asking for the truth?
The mother of strength and it is better for us to be righteous´-or-the strong to end up ending up with the right to be
He has strength to stand up. But this strength is fair, as it is neither excessive nor weak. (2)
It is the state of tyranny and despots that desires overcome reason
Greed and love for more luxury are the factors that drive people to attack who they are
Weaker than them of their race and take their property, and the state of goodness is the one that overcomes it
The mind is on desires, and the mind is wisdom, and therefore people need the guidance of philosophy
Which is the love of wisdom and means philosophy
Plato sees that leaders and wise men are made and not born, since we have been planting them
Youngsters love virtue and science until the age of thirty-five after they pass tests
Many, and it means here theoretical experience, and then they go out to socialize with people on
Society and see all the tricks and savvy, and here means practical experience, and then assigns these
People are rulers of managing the affairs of the state, so they will be supervisors and judges, and for fear of
They fall into the tide of love for money and power, as the state provides them with housing and clothing
Protection, and they are not allowed to wear luxury clothing´-or-save money, gold and silver
In their homes
2- Utopia (Abu Nasr Al-Farabi) (478 - 950) A.D.
Inspired by Plato s Republic or, say, it is the Republic of Plato itself but in a gown
Islam, the utopia depends on the principle of cooperation between its members and its social groups
Whatever its ---function---al specialties, Al-Farabi divides the people of the utopia into three
Groups Depending on the actions of these groups, there is a group of leaders
The rulers and the clergy, and the group of soldiers, soldiers and defenders of the city, and
The group of makers and peasants, but this division does not lead to the transcendence of one over another,
Whereas, justice is the basis of the state, as each group is performed
Her work is qualified to do according to her genetics and genetics, there is a group distinguished
With reason, wisdom and reason, they are the leaders, the judges, the clergy, and there is a group
They are controlled by emotion and emotion, and they are soldiers and soldiers, and a group controls
It has instinct and instinct, which are the makers and peasants. (3)
It is not understood from Al-Farabi s words that this division leads to inequality between classes
Society, and quite the contrary, that dividing according to the capabilities of each individual guarantees
Doing the task to the fullest without negligence´-or-decrease, and in this way the community grows and flourishes
Without overwhelming any class over the other, for the ruler must dedicate himself to
Serve the group and that the individual should serve the group and sacrifice for it, and that
Self-denial in the interest of the group
3 social contract
Thomas Hobbes (1544-1770)
John Locke (1732-1798)
(Jean-Jacques Rousseau) (1712-1774) M.
A. Hobbes found that a person is in a pre-society stage and here it may be interpreted as
The original state of the individual before being social, Hobbes found that man is in this
The stage is dominated by selfishness, self-interest, the absence of a legitimate source, and a controlling authority
His behavior with others, and that life in the (pre-society) stage is difficult and so cruel
An individual fears for his´-or-her life from the other, which strongly suggests the necessity of forming clusters
Humanity and its laws
John Locke B.
Hobbes argument was adopted with a difference in that pre-society is not immoral
(Finally, with a lack of laws, ethical foundations may sometimes appear.) (4)
A: However, Jacques-Jacques Rousseau violated both Hobbes and Locke in the pre-stage
Society is a life full of problems and bad conditions, on the contrary,
Rousseau predicted that in that case people would live in a state of self-sufficiency and peace
Because of the simplicity of life under ethical principles.
And he sees that the gathering was the result of economic factors that in turn led to behaviors
New as) envy shyness and love of ownership (which led to the crystallization of the idea) of property
Characteristic (in which values -;---;-----;----;---;-----;---such as) inequality greed were leaked (which he brushed
Mankind has another curve, a departure from its natural state and a departure from moral values
In all cases and circumstances, the human being, among the thinkers of the social contract, needs values
Constants that define its path and protect it, whether these conditions are human´-or-natural
Or beyond nature
4- Francis Fukuyama and the End of History (1952 -..........)
Theory of End History. Its owner is Francis Fukuyama in his famous book (End)
History and the last person (affirming that what you are witnessing now is not the end of the Cold War or
The passage of a certain period of post-war period, but it is the end of history
It means the end of ideological ideas in human history, and the spread of liberal values
Western, and his theory is based on three axes
1- That contemporary democracy started to grow since the beginning of the nineteenth century
It spread as a civilized alternative to dictatorships around the world
2- That the historical struggle between the masters and the slaves could not find a real end to it
Only in Western democracies and free economy policy
3 - The future will ultimately be the victory of capitalism and democratic socialism,
I am optimistic that the world will witness more democratic governments. (5)
And here we do not take everything that was stated in Fukuyama s theory as consistent with our beliefs,
But it is considered that he was optimistic for humanity with more liberation and democracy, as he refused
Slavery, servitude, racism, ethnicity and everything that affects dignity and substance
This is the bright moral aspect of Fukuyama s philosophy, just as his prediction is about spread
More democracies and liberation movements have not gone unheeded but rather what we are witnessing
Today in the Arab world, evidence of the validity of Fukuyama s prediction.
5- Samuel Huntington and the Clash of Civilizations (1927-2004)
Samuel Huntingdon expanded his article to a 1996 book / AD entitled
(The clash of civilizations and the reformulation of the new world order), which is the opposite
He was called by Francis Fukuyama until Samuel asserted that the post-Cold War conflicts
It will be more violent and stronger on cultural grounds than on intellectual and ideological grounds
As it was before the end of the twentieth century, he warned that western nations would lose their leadership
If it fails to contain the systems and cultures that are incompatible with them and that continue to be congested
Against the Western model
It appears to the reader that Samuel is in a way to lay theoretical foundations for the legitimacy and domination of the West
On the world, including the Islamic world, but it is quite the opposite, indeed
He calls for abandoning the universality of democracy and interference in the affairs of peoples, and demanded
By giving peoples the right to self-determination, he said that culture should be replaced instead of
Samuel s reading stems from a reading of political situations, not religious´-or-ideological terms
Where he said in the introduction to his book?
Rather, it provides an explanation for the development of world politics after the Cold War. ”(6)
If he searches for a vision of a future strategy, we can model the relations between peoples
Everyone s rights.
He is looking for a general law?
The politician rejects the policy of intervention and on the economic level
Capitalism over societies, and he is about to set a moral standard before him
All human beings
7 Harald Mueller Theory of Cultures.
The world will not collide?
Opposes the theory of Samuel Huntington
He founded Muller s theory
The dynamism of the world of nations The dynamism of the world of economics The dynamism of the world of society It means
Therefore, there are factors in politics, economics and society. (7)
These are the factors that prevented the ---union--- of cultures and peoples
Here he shares the idea with Jean-Jacques
Good and bad
IV - Conclusion and recommendations -
We tried to touch different eras of philosophy
The result was the same
That archeology of philosophy
The issue of ethics was the first issue that spilled philosophers and thinkers, as well
Philosophy did not embrace ethics?
The main concern of philosophers
Laws and laws that satisfy all human beings.
Ethics has flourished and flourished in the arms of philosophy, and the laws we see now
Regulations are philosophical principles that philosophy and thinkers have said thousands of years ago.
The Labor and Salary Law, for example, is included in the book of Socrates and Plato
Aristotle, al-Ghazali and Thomas Aquinas.
And when that is so, it is
So, your first master of morality?
Its nervous foundations strengthen?
It is working on it and the tyranny of the ruler, as if it is calling us today to abandon tribalism and regionalism
Which is one of the tragedies of our present society.
And because you Farabi resort to the happiest professions for its people?
Permissible and prohibited
Take charge of the leaders and the judiciary
Yesterday, didn t you ask?
Destined to other than the goals set by?
Who leads these institutions !!
When Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau come?
Find ethical laws living in peace under this contract
Convict. You will eat every other day ...
This is almost in the absence of .... !!!
We find an honest human anatomy in philosophy
It will disappear after the differences between the classes disappear, calling for equality and justice
Social, and the need to get rid of regulations
On the ground a few years after Fukuyama theorization.
And when Huntington mentions the term "clash of civilizations", he was neither amiable nor promising
Types to try to avoid this scenario and to present a strategy to extend the life of the balance
Civilized between peoples, and this balance
Who is going around the world?
(Hummers Philosophers of the Century
Twenty and twenty, they have not deviated from the line of interest in philosophy from its very inception
To this day, it has constantly sought and sought to interpret and formulate ethical concepts that are appropriate
With a person’s life and service
and thanks to God before and after
1 Zaki Najib Mahmoud Renewing Arab Thought Dar Al-Shorouk Ninth Edition -
1993 / m
2 Plato s princess, Helmy s princess
3 The people of the utopia views the numbers and presentation of Abdul Hamid Humaidan
Al-Azhar Heritage Library
4 Ghali Boutros Ghali Mahmoud Khairi, the entrance to the world of politics, the Anglo House
Egyptian 1993 / AD
5 The end of history and the seal of humankind
Al-Ahram Center for Translation and Publishing, first edition 1993 / A.D.
6 Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World -orderby Samuel Huntington
Translated by Talaat Al-Shayeb, Presented by Salah Qalansawa, second edition, 1999
7 Coexistence of Cultures Harald Muller, translated by Abraham Abu Hashhash
New United First Edition