dr/ Marwan Hayel Abdulmoula
2017 / 4 / 2
Today the most promising and effective methods of terror are violence against peaceful population , with the obligatory demonstration of catastrophic results , the twentieth century was a time of unprecedented in the history of terror - state, political, national, religious ,totalitarian tyrants, political adventurers, religious fanatics, separatist nationalists, have become the perpetrators of the death of millions of innocent victims, and now the world community shudders at the news of all the new terrorist acts .
Experts believe that now terrorists use more rigid, more sophisticated methods of carrying out terrorist acts, at a higher level of technology. Modern technical means and special technology make it possible to make a professional terrorist perform ,if at the beginning of the 20th century, terrorist revolutionaries basically did not have special military training, reached the whole by experience, did not actually have a training base´-or-training program, then representatives of modern groups have their own bases both in their own country and abroad, special technology , Qualified instructors, many of whom trained terrorists can be compared with the training of special units´-or-secret services. They are studying reconnaissance and counterintelligence, external surveillance and counter-observation, using special means for this , terrorists own modern weapons, communications, modern computer and other equipment, produce their own literature, newspapers.
In recent years, terrorism has undergone significant changes , its globalization has taken place, the degree of danger of terrorist threats has increased, it has become a factor that poses a serious threat to the national security of states, as well as international security in general , the UN General Assembly in different years adopted about 10 resolutions on national, regional and international terrorism, but it could not give a more´-or-less acceptable definition of this phenomenon. It is not easy to do this because of the multifaceted nature of terrorism .
What is terrorism ? Synonyms for the word "terror" (Latin terror - fear, horror) are the words "violence", "intimidation" . despite the legal validity of the term "terrorism", its definition up to the present time remains ambiguous. The problem is how to-limit- the definition of terrorism so that the actions of legitimate freedom fighters do not fall under it , Terrorism is violence that contains the threat of another, equally brutal violence, in order, military and public order, instill fear, force the enemy to make the desired decision, cause political and other changes.
Lawmakers of different countries did not come to the same definition of terrorism ,in Russia s law, terrorism is defined as the ideology of violence and the practice of influencing public consciousness, decision-making by state authorities, local governments´-or-international organizations related to force, intimidation and /´-or-other forms of unlawful violence. In the US law terrorism is deliberate, politically motivated violence, committed against civilians´-or-objects by subnational groups at the federal level ´-or-by clandestine agents and organizations, usually with the goal of influencing the mood of society , In England, terrorism is the use of violence for political purposes, including any violence aimed at inducing a feeling of fear in society´-or-any part of it , in Egypt terrorism , is any use of force, violence, threat´-or-intimidation is resorted to by the perpetrator in the execution of an individual´-or-collective criminal project, with the aim of disturbing the public order´-or-endangering the safety and security of the community If that would hurt people, terrorizes them´-or-threatens their lives´-or-freedoms´-or-Security, damage to the environment, communications, transportation, money, buildings, public´-or-private property, occupation, seizure, prevention´-or-obstruction of the exercise of public authorities´-or-the role of worship´-or-institutes of science for their work´-or-to disrupt the application of the Constitution´-or-laws´-or-regulations .
At this stage of the development of law there is no single concept of terrorism, which is due to the complexity, variety of forms and political contradictions in its assessment. To the definition of the concept of terrorism, approaches are possible from different perspectives: in particular, from the philosophical, psychological, political, sociological, criminal-legal.
the definition of terrorism is not an easy task. The forms and methods of terrorist activities have changed significantly over time. This phenomenon has a stable negative assessment, which generates an arbitrary interpretation. On the one hand, there is a tendency to unjustifiably expanded interpretation, when some political forces, without sufficient grounds, call terrorists their opponents. On the other - an unjustified narrowing. The terrorists themselves tend to call themselves soldiers, partisans, saboteurs in the enemy s rear, etc. Hence the difficulties of both legal and legal definitions, and general theoretical understanding of terrorism.
According to the general opinion of jurists, terrorism in all its forms is the most socially dangerous of all crimes described by criminal legislation (in the sanctions of articles providing for criminal responsibility for a terrorist offense, there must be the most severe punishment, from all types of punishments provided for in criminal law) besides that ,there are a number of international documents on the legal assessment of terrorism and measures to combat it. These include the Tokyo Convention on Offenses and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft in 1963, the Hague Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft of 1970, the Montreal Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, 1971 , Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection 1991 ,in these documents, the legal content of the term "terrorism" is different. Thus, the Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism of June 15, 2001, specifies such a definition of terrorism as "a) an act recognized as an offense in one of the treaties listed in the Annex to this Convention (hereinafter - Annex ), And how it is defined in this contract-;- B) any other act aimed at causing the death of any civilian´-or-any other person not taking an active part in hostilities in the situation of armed conflict,´-or-causing him serious bodily injury, as well as causing significant damage to any Material object , as well as the organization, planning of such an act, complicity in its commission, incitement to it, when the purpose of such an act, by virtue of its nature´-or-context, is to intimidate the population, violate public safety´-or-force the authorities´-or-an international organization to take any action´-or-Refrain from its commission, and prosecuted in accordance with the national legislation of the Parties
The Saint Barthelemy massacre in France 1572 , was a kind of religious terror according to recent estimates of the death toll in France during that time to 3000 dead , terrorism religious and wars actually did not end in France only after the signing of the Nantes Agreement on April 15, 1598, which recognized the freedom of religion in France
In recent years, the main danger in the world is international Islamic terrorism because the Islamist terrorist network in Europe , are make primarily focus on Muslim people with migrant roots and the fangs of these terrorist network appeared in, England , Germany , Belgium s, France , in addition, the intelligence services noted the growing radicalization of Islamists , roots from the Middle East in connect with last migratory surge .
Terrorism with religious beliefs began to spread in the Arab and Muslim countries because living conditions in Muslim countries now resemble the life of Europe in the Middle Ages due to the following factors :
2) Child religious rearing with excessive use of words such as, infidel , ( haram ) taboo , forbidden , etc of negative words , with the pride ethnic, sectarian , tribal continuous since 1400 years .
3)Lack of education
4)Despotism and tyranny
5)Socio-economic factors ( Rising unemployment, a marked decline in living standards, combined with an unprecedentedly increased social differentiation ).
6) Corruption is one component of terrorism .
( One of the main factors for the continuing terrorist threat is corruption in public authorities, this phenomenon a threat to national security and that is why all institutions that fight corruption should be supported ) .
8)spread of religious depression among youth by reason of religious terms, such as the martyrdom , afterlife and the beautiful girls in paradise .
unfortunately at present in muslim countries, religious fanaticism is widespread and everywhere and in every street , are building mosques , but no someone does not ask who and what preaches in them and what ideas sound there? .
dr/ Marwan Hayel Abdulmoula